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Friday, November 21, 2014

Renal Calculus – Urolithiasis – Kidney Stones Homeopathy Specialty Treatment Hospital in Velachery, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

 Renal Calculus – Urolithiasis – Kidney Stones Homeopathy Specialty Treatment Hospital in Velachery, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

Renal Calculus – Urolithiasis – Kidney Stones
Urolithiasis denotes stones originating anywhere in the urinary tract, including the kidneys and bladder.  The term Nephrolithiasis (or “Renal Calculus”) refers to stones that are in the kidney, while Ureteral calculi almost always originate in the kidneys, although they may continue to grow once they lodge in the ureter. The term Cystolithiasis (or Vesical Calculi) refers to stones which form or have passed into the urinary bladder.

A kidney stone, also known as a Renal Calculus is a solid concretion or crystal aggregation formed in the kidneys from dietary minerals in the urine.  Kidney stones typically leave the body by passed in the urine stream and many stones are formed and passed without causing symptoms .If stones grow to sufficient size  {usually at least 3 millimeters (0.12 inch)} they can cause obstruction of the ureter. In the pediatric population Nephrolithiasis is an important cause of morbidity. While the exact incidence of kidney stone disease in children is unknown, a significant increase in the number of children diagnosed with and treated for Urolithiasis has occurred in the last decade. In adults, kidney stones are associated with hypertension and chronic kidney Disease. Although relatively rare in the pediatric population, recent data regarding incidence and inpatient hospitalization rates for children with kidney stone bring into sharp focus the need to gain a better understanding of the metabolic underpinnings as well as environmental contributors to pediatric Nephrolithiasis as there is high chance of recurrent stone formation.

In recent years, technological advancements have greatly facilitated the diagnosis of stone disease. Physicians can now conclusively identify and, perhaps more importantly, exclude stone disease within minutes of considering the diagnosis. The management of Urolithiasis is also becoming increasingly well defined. Clear indications for urologic referral are based on recognition of the few urgent situations and a solid understanding of the natural history of stone progression.

Renal colic affects approximately 1.2 million people each year and accounts for approximately 1% of all hospital admissions.

·         The lifetime prevalence of Nephrolithiasis estimated to be between 5% and 10%, with the probability of having a stone varying according to age, gender, race and geographical location.

·         Approximately 50 percent of patients with previous urinary calculi have a recurrence within 10 years.

·         About 80% of those with kidney stones are men (male-to-female ratio of 3:1). Men most commonly experience their first episode between 20-30years of age, while for women the age at first presentation is somewhat later.

·         Stones due to discrete metabolic/hormonal defect (e.g. Cystinuria, Hyperparathyroidism) and stone disease in children are equally prevalent between the sexes.

·         Stone due to infection (Struvite calculi) are more common in women than in men. Female patients have a higher incidence of infected hydronephrosis.

·         Most urinary calculi develop in persons aged 20-49 years. Peak incidence occurs in people aged 35-45 years, but the disease can affect anyone at any age. Patients in whom multiple recurrent stones form usually develop their first stones while in their second or third decade of life.

·         While Nephrolithiasis can occur in any pediatric age group, infants represent roughly 20% of pediatric stone cases and tend to have a distinct history and presentation.

·         Anatomic abnormalities such as ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction or ureterovesical junction (UVJ) obstruction are found on workup of Nephrolithiasis in 11-24% of children.

·         Among children, Nephrocalcinosis is most common in term and preterm infants who have complicated hospital courses.

·         Children can present with stones at any age (e.g. premature newborn to teenager).In children, calcium stones are most common. The approximate frequence of kidney stone types in the pediatric age group is calcium with phosphate or oxalate (57%), struvite (24%), uric acid (8%), cystine (6%), endemic (2%), mixed (2%) and other types (1%).

·         Approximately 40% of children with Urolithiasis have a positive family history of kidney stones and most of the children have a metabolic background of stone disease.

·         An initial stone attack after age 50 years is relatively uncommon.

·         Whites are affected more often than persons of Asian ethnicity, who are affected more often than blacks. In addition, Urolithiasis occurs more frequency in hot, arid areas than in temperate regions.

·         In developing countries, bladder calculi are more common than upper urinary tract calculi; the opposite is true in developed countries. These differences are believed to be diet-related.


High fat/ protein intake
·         A higher energy diet with more fat and protein may be associated with a higher incidence of stones. This is secondary to the increased prevalence of hyperuricouria, hyperoxaluria and hypercalciuria associated with this diet.

High salt intake
·         Higher sodium intake is associated with higher urinary sodium and calcium levels and decreased citrate. This promotes calcium salt crystallization due to urinary saturation of monosodium urate and calcium phosphate being increased. Salt also can lead to bone loss, thereby increasing hypercalciuria.

White ancestry
·         In US men, the highest prevalence of Nephrolithiasis is found in white men, followed by Hispanic men, Asain men and black men. Among US women, the prevalence is highest among white women but lowest among Asain women.

Male sex
·         Nephrolithiasis typically affects adult men more commonly than adult women, with a male to female ratio of 2 or 3:1.However, there is evidence that this difference in incidence between men and women is narrowing.

·         Fluid intake is very important and should be at least 2 liters per day. A low urine output can produce higher levels of urinary solutes, leading to stone formation.

·         Prevalence and incident risk of Nephrolithiasis are directly correlated with weight and BMI in both genders, although the magnitude of the association is greater in women than in men.
·         Evidence linking obesity with low urine pH and uric acid stones and an association with hypercalciuria could account for an increased risk of uric acid and/ or calcium stones in obese patients.
·         Stone formers (especially calcium oxalate stones) frequently excrete more calcium oxalate crystals in the urine. Increased urinary excretion of crystine, struvite, and uric acid crystals is also a risk factor for stone formation.

  Occupational exposure to dehydration
·         Dehydration and heat exposure are risk factors for Nephrolithiasis. Those exposed to high temperatures demonstrate lower urine volumes and pH, higher uric acid levels and higher urine specific gravity, leading to higher urinary saturation of uric acid, as well as calcium oxalate. As a result, people exposed to dehydration and heated are at increased risk for forming stones.

Warm climate
·         Seasonal variation in Nephrolithiasis is likely related to temperature because of fluid losses through perspiration. It has been reported that the highest incidence of Nephrolithiasis is in the summer months, July through September, with the peak occurring within 1 to 2 months of maximal mean temperatures.

Family history
·         A positive family history of Nephrolithiasis is associated with an increased risk of forming stones. A stone forming

Symptoms of kidney stones
  • While some kidney stones may not produce symptoms (known as "silent" stones), people who have kidney stones often report the sudden onset of excruciating, cramping pain in their low back and/or side, groin, or abdomen.
  • Changes in body position do not relieve this pain.
  • The pain typically waxes and wanes in severity, characteristic of colicky pain (the pain is sometimes referred to as renal colic).
  • It may be so severe that it is often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
  • Kidney stones also characteristically cause blood in the urine.
  • If infection is present in the urinary tract along with the stones, there may be fever and chills.

Homeopathy Medicines Treatment for Kidney Stones
Symptomatic Homeopathy works well for Kidney Stones, It helps to prevent further recurrence also. So its good to consult a experienced Homeopathy physician without any hesitation.

Whom to contact for Kidney Stones  Treatment
Dr.Senthil Kumar Treats many cases of Kidney Stones, In his medical professional experience with successful results. Many patients get relief after taking treatment from Dr.Senthil Kumar.  Dr.Senthil Kumar visits Chennai at Vivekanantha Homeopathy Clinic, Velachery, Chennai 42. To get appointment please call 9786901830, +91 94430 54168 or mail to,

For more details & Consultation Feel free to contact us.
Vivekanantha Clinic Consultation Champers at
Chennai:- 9786901830
Panruti:- 9443054168
Pondicherry:- 9865212055 (Camp)

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Vivekanantha Homoeo Clinic & Psychological Counselling Center

Dr.Senthil Kumar’s Consultation Schedule


Head Office

Monday to Saturday:- 10.00am to 12.30pm &

5.00pm to 8.30pm

Sunday: - 10.30am to 12.30pm

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Near Vijaya nagar Bus Stand,

Velachery, Chennai 42,


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Monday(First & Third Monday of Every Month)

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11, Kuchipalayam Street

(Opposite lane to Boys Hr Sec School), Panruti-607106,

Cuddalore District,

Tamil Nadu, India


Branch Office

Every Saturday:

11.00am to 02.00pm

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Disclaimer: These articles is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. we used all reasonable care in compiling the information but make no warranty as to its accuracy. Consult a doctor or other health care professional for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions.