Siddha System is one of the ancient traditional systems of medicine in India. Siddhars the spiritual scientists of Tamil land are the founding fathers of this scientific system.
According to Siddha System the human body is the replica of the universe so are the food and drugs irrespective of their origin. Siddha system believes that all objects in the universe including human body are composed of five basic primordial elements, namely earth, water, fire, air and space. The human body is a conglomeration of three humors and seven physical components. The Food is considered to be basic building material of human body, which gets processed into humors, tissues and wastes. The equilibrium of humors, body tissues and waste products is considered as health and its disturbance or imbalance leads to disease or pathologic state.
This system also deals with the concept of immortality and salvation in this life. The exponents of this system consider that achievement of this state is possible by regulated diet, medicine and processing of mind by yogic or spiritual exercises like meditation and yoga.
Siddhars described 96 principles as the constituents of Human Being. They include Physical, Physiological, Mental and Intellectual components of a person. They are nothing but the manifestations of the “Five Basic Elements ".
Disease is a condition in which there is imbalance in the "Five Elements, which alters the "Three Humours " which is also reflected in the seven physical constituents. The change disturbs the equilibrium and cause disease.
The basic concept of Siddha system of medicine is
" Food is Medicine - Medicine is Food"
Saint Thiruvalluvar says
" Miginum Kuraiyinum Noi Seyyum Noolor
Vali Mudhala Enniya Moondru "
"Wind, bile and phlegm three cause disease
so Doctors deem it more or less"
" Noi Naadi Noi Mudhal Naadi Athu thanikkum
Vaai Naadi Vayppa Seyal."
"Test disease, its causes and cure
and apply remedy that is sure"
It is always essential to identify the cause for any disease to be accepted as a " Scientific method " The Diagnostic methodology in Siddha Treatment is unique as it is made purely on the basis of the " Clinical Acumen " of the Physician. He examines the Tongue, complexion, speech, eyes, palpation in a patient and he also examines the urine and stools. The diagnosis is then confirmed by the " Pulse Diagnosis ". The above approach is collectively known as " Eight types of examinations". However, the Siddha Physician now also accepts the modern diagnostic methods for the purpose of diagnosis.
The following lines of treatment have been in practice in Siddha medicine.
· Using medicines like Choornam, Kudineer, Vadagam etc. made of herbs.
· Surgical methods like incision, excision, heat application, blood letting and leech application etc.
· Physiotherapy - Thokkanam and Varma, the Siddha way of Touch therapy, Medicated Oil application , Fomentation, herbal steam bath etc.
· Using medicines like Parpam, Chenduram, Chuxnam etc . Made of minerals especially of metals.
Siddhars , with their clarified and intuitive intellect resulting from their yogic powers explored the nature and exploited the natural resources for the sake of humanity. They documented their findings about the characteristics of plants , metals, minerals and animal products. They documented all their findings in the form of poems for the use of posterity. Knowledge was transmitted from Guru to disciples. Their boundless knowledge on the properties of drugs, purification, processing, heat application, fixing dosage , toxicity , antidote and clinical application astonishes the modern scientific world.
The Siddha System is capable of treating all types of chronic diseases especially arthritis, skin problems urinary tract disorders, infertility , degenerative disorders like osteo arthritis , Senile Dementia, disease of the liver, medicinally treatable Spinal disorders ,general debility ,diarrhoea and intractable allergic disorders.
Ayurvedha is an ancient system of medicine, which originated in northern India antiquity of which dates back to the period of Vedas and this is said to be born from Atharva Veda. This knowledge has been gathered due to constant observation of nature for long years by men since the advent of civilization and cannot be attributed to any individual or a group of individuals by any stretch of imagination. Ayurvedha is basically based on the predominance of three humours namely Vatha, Pittha and Kapha in the human body. Balanced state of these doshas denotes health and their imbalance produces disease.
Preceptors like Charaka, Susrutha have been benevolent enough to compile these invaluable treasure troves of knowledge to be passed on to posterity. The fact that Ayurvedha has stood the test of time bears ample testimony to its efficacy till date.
It comprises of eight branches namely.
1. Kaya Chikitsa (General Medicine)
2. Kaumara Bhruthya (Paediatrics)
3. Bhutha Vidhya (Psychiatry)
4. Salakya (ENT and Ophthalmology and dentistry)
5. Shalya (Surgery)
6. Agada Tantra (Toxicology)
7. Rasayana (Rejuvenation Therapy)
8. Vajeekarana (Aphrodisiac therapy)
Pancha karma one of the areas of specialization, which has earned public acclaim in recent times, is also a part of the above branches. It enjoys popularity because of its being hands on therapy and is very relaxing to the fatigued body and tired mind.
Unani system of Medicine has originated in Greece. It was further enriched and developed by Arabs and Persians. Hippocrates explained that the disease was a normal process and its symptoms were the reaction of the body to the disease. The chief function of the physician was to aid the natural forces of the body. He held that there exist in the body four humours that keep up the balance of it. He also laid emphasis on diet, drugs of plants, animal and mineral origin for curing the disease.
The Unani system of Medicine is based on the Humoural theory. Humoural pathology which presupposes the presence of four humours namely - Blood (Dam), Phlegm(Balgham), Yellow bile (Safra) and Black bile (Sauda) in the body. The temperament of persons is expressed accordingly by the words Sanguine, Phlegmatic, Choleric and Melancholic according to the preponderance of them in the body. Everybody has got unique humoural constitution which represents the healthy state of humoural balance of the body. The Unani medicine plays a vital role when the individual experiences the humoural imbalance. The correct diet and digestion can bring back the humoural balance. Its main emphasis is on diagnosis of a disease through Nabz(Pulse), Baul(Urine), Baraz(stool) etc. It has laid down six essential prerequisites for the prevention of disease. They are known as 'Asbab-e-sitte Zarooriya' viz. air, drinks and foods; bodily movement and repose; psychic movement and repose; sleep and wakefulness; excretion and retention.
The modes of treatment are as follows:-
(I) Ilaj bid-Tadbeer (Regimental therapy)
(ii) Ilaj bid Ghiza (Dieto Therapy)
(iii) Ilaj bid Dawa (Pharmaco Therapy)
(IV) Jarahat (Surgery)
The regimental therapy includes venesection, cupping, sweating, diuresis, bath(Hammam), massage, cauterization, purging, vomiting, exercise and leeching etc. Dieto therapy aims at treating certain ailments by administration of specific diets, whereas pharmaco therapy deals with use of naturally occurring drugs, mostly herbals though drugs of animals and mineral origin are also used.
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT;
The unani system of diagnosis of diseases and treatment restoring health, revolves round the concept of temperament or 'Mizaj'. The humours also have specific temperament. Changes in temperament are related to changes in the balance of humours. Any change in temperament brings about a change in the health of the individual. Thus imbalance of the harmony of humours and temperament along with failure of one or more parts of the body to eliminate pathogentic waste causes disease.
The Government recognized the merit of Unani system and attempts were made to develop it as a viable system of medicine for National Health care. The Unani drugs are cost effective, safe and widely accepted by the people of India.
"Homoeopathy is a system of treatment of the diseased by drugs usually prescribed in minute doses that in a healthy person would produce symptoms like those of disease."
The Homoeopathy way of healing was devised by the Great German physician Dr.Christian Frederick Samuel Hahnemann in the late 18th Century. He came across an old idea of the efficacy of 'Cinchona bark' in treating intermittent fever due to its toxic effect on the stomach and conducted experiments upon himself in order to get the truth. He deduced from the experiment that Cinchona was used as a remedy for intermittent fever and it could produce symptoms similar to those of intermittent fever in healthy people, if taken for a specific period of time. The law of 'Similia Similibus Curentur' or 'let likes be treated by the likes' thus forms the basis of treatment under the Homoeopathic method of drug therapy employed to cure the natural sufferings of person by the administration of drugs which have been experimentally proved to possess the power of producing similar artificial sufferings or symptoms of diseases in healthy human being.
In Homoeopathy the main emphasis is on the remedial agents in illness and in health. It is a low cost system using only the non-toxic drugs. It has established a reputation for successful treatment of acute and chronic illness and in certain disease for which there is no or less treatment in other systems. Dr.Samuel Hahnemann, who was the founder of this system enunciated the basic concepts and its principles in "Organon the Art of Healing" in the year 1810.
Due to various reasons like cost-effectiveness and non-toxic nature of its drugs, no side effects of easy in take. Homoeopathy is getting a very high recognition and acceptance from the people. Having its origin in the modern scientific age, it has the benefit of basing its theory and concept on demonstrable scientific principles and procedures.
It is based on the following cardinal principles
1. The law of Similars
2. The law of Single Remedy
3. The law of Minimum Dose
4. Doctrine of Drug proving
5. Doctrine of dynamisation
6. Doctrine of vital force
7. Doctrine of Chronic disease
Among this, the most fundamental is the 'law of Similars'. This law states that the symptoms experienced by the sick person are reactions of the body which it mobilizes in order to counteract a morbid influence, be it a specific stress such as bacteria or viruses, or a non-specific stress such as climatic changes, environmental pollution, mental and emotional disturbances etc. Among the seven, first three are having more therapeutic importance and value.
HEALTH AND DISEASE IN HOMOEOPATHY:
This system assumes that any disease symptoms, syndrome is the reaction of the defence mechanism of human body against the disease-causing agent. The symptoms are the means through which the body tries to regain its lost balance. According to it, the symptoms syndrome in a disease is not the disease per se but the reaction of the defence mechanism mobilized by the body in order to counteract a morbific influence existing in the body and causing the loss of balance of the healthy body. Thus the disequilibrium in the normal functioning of the organs of body implies sickness.
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
In Homoeopathy patients are diagnosed (their individual symptoms) but not their disease. As there is specific medicine for specific disease, unless the diseases are diagnosed, they cannot be treated, in other systems of medicine, where as in Homoeopathy, medicine are proved in healthy individuals are their symptoms are recorded. In order to treat the diseased individual their symptoms are to be matched with the patients' symptoms. Therefore, importance is given to the symptomatology than the diagnosis. By treating in this way, the natural defence mechanism (Immunity) of the individual is strengthened and recurrence of the disease is curtailed.
In deciding the treatment, the Homoeopathic practitioner follows the well-known principles of 'Similia Similibus Curentur'. In simple terms it means let the similar substance which can produce specific symptoms in a healthy individual cure those similar symptoms in a sick individual, although the symptoms have arisen from another cause i.e. Bacteria, virus etc., The cure is based on the assumption that the patient is extremely sensitive to that particular remedy and only to that remedy which can produce his/her symptomatology. Homoeopathy has a definite and effective treatment for some disease such as Diabetes, Arthritis, Bronchial Asthma, Epilepsy, Skin Eruption, Allergic conditions and Mental or Emotional disorders. Even, some surgical disease gets cured in Homoeopathy with out undergoing surgery.
Thus the sick person after taking treatment not only gets cured of his disease, but simultaneously regains a perfect state of health.
ADVENT OF HOMOEOPATHY IN INDIA
Homoeopathic system of treatment was first introduced in India in 1839 by Dr.J.M.Honigberger. During his visit to India, he cured Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Punjab. The Homoeopathic system of treatment spread successfully among all sections of the people. This system of treatment is economical and the medicines have no side effects.
Naturopathy is not just a system of medicine but a way of life. It is often referred as drugless therapy. It is based mainly on the ancient practice of the application of the simple laws of nature. There are two schools of thought regarding the approach of Naturopathy. One group believes in the ancient Indian methods.
The advocacy of Naturopathy pay particular attention to eating and living habits, adoption of purificatory measures, use of hydrotherapy, cold packs, mud packs, massage and a variety of measure based on their innovative talent.
A carefully supervised total fast or partial fast is advocated to clear the system of toxic accumulation. Water or dilute fruit juices are permitted. The Naturopathy has to keep a strict supervision lest the patient may develop physical and emotional untoward effects. The system believes that, if the way of life is properly organised, one can get the bounties of energy, health and happiness from the benevolent nature. What one has to do for prevention of disease, promotion of health and to get therapeutic advantages is to adopt natural means to living. Naturopathy is based on various treatments like magneto therapy, massage therapy, physiotherapy, psychotherapy, reflexology, chromo therapy, acupuncture, acupressure, yoga therapy, diet therapy.
The Yoga we know was developed as a part of tantric civilisation, which existed in India more than 10,000 years ago. Now Yoga is developed as a separate medical science combined with Naturopathy. Patanjali propounded it in a systematic form; which consists of eight components namely restraint, observance of austerity, physical postures, breathing exercise, restraining of sense organs, contemplation, meditation and Samadhi. These steps in the practice of Yoga have potential in improvement of social behaviour, improvement of physical health, improvement of better circulation of oxygenated blood in body, restraining the sense organs and thereby the mind and in inducing tranquillity and serenity in the mind. The practice of integrated type of Yoga prevents psychosomatic disorders/disease and improves individual's resistance and ability to endure stressful situations. A number of physical postures are described in Yogic works to improve body health, to prevent disease and to cure illness. The physical postures are to be chosen judiciously and are to be practiced in a right way to derive the benefits. Breathing exercise helps in supply of proper oxygenated blood in the body.
Studies have revealed that the Yogic practices improve the intelligence and memory and help in developing resistance to endure situations of strain and stress and also to develop an integrated psychosomatic personality, meditation is yet another exercise which can stabilize emotional changes and prevent abnormal functions of vital organs of the body. Studies have shown that meditation not only restrains the sense organs but also controls the autonomic nervous system.
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