The kidney acts as a
filter for blood, removing waste products from the body and helping regulate
the levels of chemicals important for body function. The urine drains from the
kidney into the Bladder through a narrow
tube called the ureter. When the bladder fills and there is an urge to urinate,
the bladder empties through the urethra, a much wider tube than the urethra.
In some people, the urine
chemicals crystallize and form the beginning, or a nidus, of a kidney stone.
These stones are very tiny when they form, smaller than a grain of sand, but
gradually they can grow to a quarter inch or larger. The size of the stone
doesn't matter as much as where it is located.
When the stone sits in
the kidney, it rarely causes problems, but should it fall into the ureter, it
acts like a dam. The kidney continues to function and make urine, which backs
up behind the stone, stretching the kidney. This pressure build up causes the
pain of a kidney stone, but it also helps push the stone along the course of
the ureter. When the stone enters the bladder, the obstruction in the ureter is
relieved and the symptoms of a kidney stone are resolved.
There is no consensus as
to why kidney stones form.
- Heredity: Some people are more susceptible to forming
kidney stones, and heredity certainly plays a role. The majority of kidney
stones are made of calcium, and hypercalciuria (high levels of calcium in
the urine), is a risk factor. The predisposition to high levels of calcium
in the urine may be passed on from generation to generation. Some rare
hereditary diseases also predisposecystine (an amino acid), oxalate, (a
type of salt), and uric acid (as in gout).
some people to form kidney stones. Examples include people with renal
tubular acidosis and people with problems metabolizing a variety of
- Geographical location: There is also a geographic
predisposition in some people who form kidney stones. There are regional
"stone belts," with people living in the Southern United States,
having an increased risk. This is likely because of the hot climate, since
these people can get dehydrated, and their urine becomes more concentrated,
allowing chemicals to come in closer contact and begin forming the nidus
of a stone.
- Diet: Diet may or may not be an issue. If a person is
susceptible to forming stones, then foods high in calcium may increase the
risk, however if a person isn't susceptible to forming stones, nothing in
the diet will change that risk.
- OTC products: People taking diuretics (or "water
pills") and those who consume excess calcium-containing antacids can
increase the amount of calcium in their urine and increase their risk of
forming stones. Patients with HIV who take the medication indinavir
(Crixivan) can form indinavir stones.
Kidney-Renal Stones Symptoms
When a tubular structure
is blocked in the body, pain is generated in waves as the body tries to unblock
the obstruction. These waves of pain are called colic.
- Renal colic (renal is the medical term for things
related to the kidney) has a classic presentation when a kidney stone is
- The pain is intense and comes on suddenly.
- It is usually located in the flank or the side of the
mid back and radiates to the groin. Those affected cannot find a
comfortable position, and many writhe in pain.
- This is opposed to non-colicky type pain, like
appendicitis or pancreatitis, where movement causes increased pain and
affected persons hold very still.
- Sweating, nausea and vomiting are common.
- Blood may be visible in the urine because the stone has
irritated the ureter. Blood in the urine, however, does not always mean a
person has a kidney stone. There may be other reasons for the blood,
including kidney and bladder infections, trauma, or tumors. Urinalysis
with a microscope may detect blood even if it is not appreciated by the
naked eye. Sometimes, if the stone causes complete obstruction, there may
be no blood in the urine because it cannot get past the stone.
- The classic presentation of renal colic associated with
blood in the urine suggests the diagnosis of kidney stone. Unfortunately,
many other conditions can mimic this disease, and the physician or
healthcare provider may need to order tests to confirm the diagnosis.
There should always be a concern about the possibility of a leaking
abdominal aortic aneurysm when dealing with a patient who presents with
the typical symptoms of a kidney stone.
- Physical examination is not very helpful in patients
with kidney stones, aside from the finding of flank (side of the body
between the ribs and hips) tenderness. The examination is often directed
to ensuring that other potentially dangerous diagnoses don't exist. As examples,
when examining the abdomen, the physician will be looking for a palpable
mass that pulsates, which may be a sign of an aneurysm. Tenderness under
the right rib cage margin may signal gallbladder disease.
- Symptom control is very important, and medication for
pain and nausea may be provided before the confirmation of the diagnosis
- A urinalysis will show whether there is blood in the
urine. It is also done to ensure that there is no infection associated
with the kidney stone.
- Blood tests are usually not done, except when the
physician has concerns about the diagnosis or is worried about kidney
- CT scanning of the abdomen is the diagnostic test of
choice. It is done without asking the patient to drink contrast material
to outline the bowel and without intravenous dye injection. The scan will
show the anatomy of the kidneys, ureter, and bladder and will show if a
stone exists, how big it is, and how much blockage it is causing. The CT
also demonstrates many other organs in the abdomen, like the appendix,
pancreas, and aorta and may give extra information in case the preliminary
diagnosis of kidney stone was wrong.
- Ultrasound is another way of looking for kidney stones
and obstruction and may be useful when the radiation risk of a CT scan is
unwanted (for example, if a woman is pregnant).
- In those patients who already have the diagnosis of a
kidney stone, plain abdominal x-rays may be used to track its movement
down the ureter toward the bladder.
- Since most patients have two kidneys, a temporary
obstruction of one is not of great significance. For those patients with
only one kidney, an obstructing stone can be a true emergency, and the
need to relieve the obstruction becomes greater. A kidney that remains
completely obstructed for a prolonged period of time may stop working.
- Infection associated with an obstructing stone is
another emergent situation. When urine is infected and cannot drain, it
acts like an abscess and can spread the infection throughout the body
(sepsis). Fever is a major sign of this complication, but urinalysis may
show an infection and cause the urologist to act to place a stent or
remove the stone.
- For the first-time kidney stone patient, there should
be an attempt to catch the stone by straining the urine, so that it can be
sent for analysis. The stone may be so tiny that it may not be recognized.
While most stones are made of calcium oxalate, should that not be the
case, knowing what type of stone is the culprit may be helpful in preventing
further episodes. For those whose stone disease is recurrent and the kind
of stone is known, this instruction is omitted.
- Drinking plenty of water will help push the stone down
the ureter to the bladder and hasten its elimination.
- A follow-up visit with a urologist will be arranged one
to two weeks after the initial visit, allowing the stone to pass on its
- Patients should call their physician or return to the
emergency department if the pain medication is not working to control the
pain, if there is persistent vomiting, or if a fever occurs.
to Prevent Renal stones
- While kidney stones and renal colic probably cannot be
prevented, the risk of forming a stone can be minimized by avoiding
dehydration. Keeping the urine dilute will not allow the chemical crystals
to come out of solution and form the nidus of a stone. Making certain that
the urine remains clear and not concentrated (yellow) will help minimize
- Medication may be prescribed for certain types of
stones, and compliance with taking the medication is a must to reduce the
risk of future stone episodes.
Symptomatic Homeopathy works well for Kidney Stones,
It helps to prevent further recurrence also. So its good to consult a
experienced Homeopathy physician without any hesitation.
For More details Please contact
Whom to contact for Kidney Stones Treatment
Kumar Treats many cases of all types of Renal Stones, In his medical professional experience
with successful results. Many patients get relief after taking treatment from
Dr.Senthil Kumar. Dr.Senthil Kumar visits Chennai at Vivekanantha
Homeopathy Clinic, Velachery, Chennai 42. To get appointment please call
9786901830, +91 94430 54168 or mail to firstname.lastname@example.org,
more details & Consultation Feel free to contact us.
Vivekanantha Clinic Consultation Champers
Pondicherry:- 9865212055 (Camp)
For appointment please Call us or Mail Us
For appointment: SMS your Name -Age – Mobile Number - Problem in Single word -
date and day - Place of appointment (Eg: Rajini – 30 - 99xxxxxxx0 – Renal
Kidney Stones, siru neeraga karkal– 21st Oct, Sunday - Chennai ), You will
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