Functions of Blood
- Ø Dissolved gases (e.g. oxygen, carbon dioxide);
- Ø Waste products of metabolism (e.g. water, urea);
- Ø Hormones;
- Ø Enzymes;
- Ø Nutrients (such as glucose, amino acids, micro-nutrients (vitamins & minerals), fatty acids, glycerol);
- Ø Plasma proteins (associated with defence, such as blood-clotting and anti-bodies);
- Ø Blood cells (incl. white blood cells 'leucocytes', and red blood cells 'erythrocytes').
2. Maintains Body Temperature
3. Controls pH
- Ø The pH of blood must remain in the range 6.8 to 7.4, otherwise it begins to damage cells.
4. Removes toxins from the body
- Ø The kidneys filter all of the blood in the body (approx. 8 pints), 36 times every 24 hours. Toxins removed from the blood by the kidneys leave the body in the urine. (Toxins also leave the body in the form of sweat.)
5. Regulation of Body Fluid Electrolytes
- Ø Excess salt is removed from the body in urine, which may contain around 10g salt per day (such as in the cases of people on western diets containing more salt than the body requires).
Blood group A
- Ø If you belong to the blood group A, you have A antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and B antibodies in your blood plasma.
Blood group B
- Ø If you belong to the blood group B, you have B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and A antibodies in your blood plasma.
Blood group AB
- Ø If you belong to the blood group AB, you have both A and B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells and no A or B antibodies at all in your blood plasma.
Blood group 0
- Ø If you belong to the blood group 0 (null), you have neither A or B antigens on the surface of your red blood cells but you have both A and B antibodies in your blood plasma.
You Can Give Blood To
You Can Receive Blood From
A+ A- O+ O-
O+ A+ B+ AB+
B+ B- O+ O-
A+ A- AB+ AB-
B+ B- AB+ AB-
AB- A- B- O-
- Almost 40% of the population has O+ blood
- Patients with Type O blood must receive Type O blood
- About half of all blood ordered by hospitals are Type O
- Type O blood is the universal blood type and is the only blood type that can be transfused to patients with other blood types
- Only about 7% of all people have Type O negative blood
- Type O negative blood is the preferred type for accident victims and babies needing exchange transfusions
- There is always a need for Type O donors because their blood may be transfused to a person of any blood type in an emergency
- Someone needs blood every two seconds.
- About 1 in 7 people entering a hospital need blood.
- One pint of blood can save up to three lives.
- Healthy adults who are at least 17 years old, and at least 45kg may donate about a pint of blood – the most common form of donation – every 56 days, or every two months. Females receive 53 percent of blood transfusions; males receive 47 percent.
- 94 percent of blood donors are registered voters.
- Four main red blood cell types: A, B, AB and O. Each can be positive or negative for the Rh factor. AB is the universal recipient; O negative is the universal donor of red blood cells.
- Dr. Karl Landsteiner first identified the major human blood groups – A, B, AB and O – in 1901.
- One unit of blood can be separated into several components: red blood cells, plasma, platelets and cryoprecipitate.
- Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body's organs and tissues.
- Red blood cells live about 120 days in the circulatory system.
- Platelets promote blood clotting and give those with leukemia and other cancers a chance to live.
- Plasma is a pale yellow mixture of water, proteins and salts.
- Plasma, which is 90 percent water, makes up 55 percent of blood volume.
- Healthy bone marrow makes a constant supply of red cells, plasma and platelets.
- Blood or plasma that comes from people who have been paid for it cannot be used to human transfusion.
- Granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, roll along blood vessel walls in search of bacteria to engulf and destroy.
- White cells are the body's primary defense against infection.
- Aphaeresis is a special kind of blood donation that allows a donor to give specific blood components, such as platelets.
- how long most donated red blood cells can be stored- Forty two days
- how long most donated platelets can be stored- Five days
- how long frozen plasma can be stored- One year
- Much of today's medical care depends on a steady supply of blood from healthy donors.
- Children being treated for cancer, premature infants and children having heart surgery need blood and platelets from donors of all types, especially type O.
- Anemic patients need blood transfusions to increase their red blood cell levels.
- Cancer, transplant and trauma patients, and patients undergoing open-heart surgery may require platelet transfusions to survive.
- Many patients with severe sickle cell disease receive blood transfusions every month.
- A patient could be forced to pass up a lifesaving organ, if compatible blood is not available to support the transplant.
- Thirteen tests (11 for infectious diseases) are performed on each unit of donated blood.
- 17 percent of non-donors cite "never thought about it" as the main reason for not giving, while 15 percent say they're too busy.
- The #1 reason blood donors say they give is because they "want to help others."
- Shortages of all blood types happen during the summer and winter holidays.
- Blood centers often run short of types O and B red blood cells.
- The rarest blood type is the one not on the shelf when it's needed by a patient.
- There is no substitute for human blood.
- If all blood donors gave three times a year, blood shortages would be a rare event (The current average is about two.).
- 176 liter of blood you could donate if you begin at age 17 and donate every 56 days until you reach 79 years old.
- Four easy steps to donate blood: medical history, quick physical, donation and snacks.
- The actual blood donation usually takes about 10 minutes. The entire process – from the time you sign in to the time you leave – takes about an hour.
- After donating blood, you replace the fluid in hours and the red blood cells within four weeks. It takes eight weeks to restore the iron lost after donating.
- You cannot get AIDS or any other infectious disease by donating blood.
- 5 liters of blood in the body of an average adult.
- One unit of whole blood is roughly the equivalent of 4,75 ml.
- Blood makes up about 7 percent of your body's weight.
- A newborn baby has about one cup of blood in his body.
- Giving blood will not decrease your strength.
- Any company, community organization, place of worship or individual may contact their local community blood center to host a blood drive.
- People who donate blood are volunteers and are not paid for their donation
Make an Appointment
Ø It always helps us to know in advance when you are coming in to make a donation.
Ø Be sure to drink plenty of fluids the day of your donation.
Wear Something Comfortable
Ø Wear clothing with sleeves that can easily be rolled up above the elbow
Maintain a Healthy Level of Iron in Your Diet before Donating
Ø If possible, include iron-rich foods in your diet, especially in the weeks before your donation.
Bring a List of Medications You Are Taking
Ø The blood bank staff may need to know about any prescription and/or over the counter medications that may be in your system.
Bring an ID
Ø Please bring either your donor card, driver's license or two other forms of identification.
Bring a Friend
Ø Bring along a friend, so that you may both enjoy the benefits of giving blood.
No Tension - feel relax!
Ø Blood donation is a simple and very safe procedure so there is nothing to worry about.
The Donation Process Step by Step – International standards
The steps in the process are
Step 1: Registration
- Ø The Blood bank staff and volunteers will sign you in and go over basic eligibility and donation information.
- Ø You will read information about donating blood, and will be asked to show a donor card, driver's license, or other form(s) of ID.
Step 2: Health History & Mini-Physical
- Ø You will answer some questions during a private and confidential interview about your health history and places you have traveled.
- Ø The Blood bank staff will check your temperature, pulse, blood pressure and hemoglobin level present in a sample of blood.
Step 3: The Donation
- Ø The Blood bank staff will cleanse an area on your arm and insert a brand new sterile needle for the blood draw. This feels like a quick pinch and is over in seconds.
- Ø The actual donation takes about 8-10 minutes, during which you will be seated comfortably. Certain donation types, such as platelets, red cells or plasma (aphaeresis donations) can take up to 2 hours.
- Ø When approximately a pint of blood has been collected, the donation is complete and a staff person will place a bandage on your arm.
Step 4: Refreshments
- Ø After donating, you should have a snack and something to drink in the refreshments area. You can leave the site after 10-15 minutes and continue with your normal daily activities.
- Ø Enjoy the feeling of accomplishment knowing that you have helped save lives
- ü You should continue to drink water throughout the day of your donation.
Avoid Heavy Lifting or Exercise
- ü Try not to exert yourself too much for the rest of the day.
Accept Blood Bank staffs Most Sincere Thank You!
- ü Also accept the thanks of people whose lives were changed by blood donations.
Enjoy the feeling of knowing that you helped save lives!
Why blood is vital even for the dying
"These vital transfusions give patients a better quality of life. It gives them the energy and ability to enjoy this precious, final time with their families."
But this time is often a gift that only blood can provide. In some serious accidents, its use can mean that a critically ill patient can stay alive long enough for their loved ones to reach the hospital to see them, one last time.
How Blood banks use Blood?
- · This is rarely used these days, only really in instances of severe blood loss. It's usually separated into its individual components.
- · The main function of red blood cells is to distribute oxygen to body tissues and to carry waste carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
- · These are used in the treatment of all kinds of anaemia which can't be medically corrected, such as when rheumatoid arthritis or cancer is involved, when red cells break down in the newborn and for sickle cell disease.
- · They're also essential to replace lost red cells due to blood loss in accidents, surgery and after childbirth.
- · Platelets can be used in bone marrow failure, post transplant and chemotherapy treatments, and leukemia. Platelets can be of huge benefit to the recipient.
- · Fresh frozen plasma is used after obstetric loss of blood (which is usually childbirth), during cardiac surgery, and to reverse any anti-coagulant treatment.
- · It's also used to replace clotting factors after massive transfusions or when they are not being sufficiently produced, such as liver disease.
- · And then there's processed plasma, which has several important uses.
- · For instance, it is used in the treatment of haemophilia and for treating sufferers of Christmas disease, a life-threatening form of haemophilia.
- · Processed plasma is also used to help produce stronger antibodies against diseases like tetanus, hepatitis, chickenpox and rabies.
- · It also helps generate anti-D, which is used for RhD negative pregnant women carrying RhD positive babies.
- · Additionally there is a protein called albumin contained in plasma, which is extremely beneficial for burn victims.
"I am afraid to give blood"
- ü For everything there is a first time. Just have courage and try it once. You will wonder why you ever hesitated.
"Other people must be giving enough blood"
- ü That's an assumption! If everyone takes this stand, what will happen to people in dire need of blood?
"My blood is not the right type"
- ü Every type is the "right type". Both rare and common types are needed all the time.
"They wouldn't want my blood because of illness I've had"
- ü If you have doubts, the staff on duty will review your medical history with you.
"I don't have any blood to spare"
- ü If you are healthy, you have enough blood. You can regularly donate every 3 months without any problem.
"My blood isn't rich enough"
- ü A sample of your blood is checked before you donate. If you are found unfit at least you know the cause and can correct it.
"I am afraid of being turned down"
- ü If you are medically deferred, that's okay, at least you tried. You can try again later. The need for blood never runs out.
"You'll take too much and I'll feel weak"
- ü The amount taken is less than one pint and replaced within a few hours by your body. You can continue your usual activities after donation.
"I am too busy"
- ü This is positively the lousiest excuse ever! You can make the time, if you really want to.