Vivekanantha Homoeo Clinic & Psychological Counselling Centre Welcomes You

Thursday, May 29, 2014

Obesity - Weight Loss : Best Homeopathy Treatment Specialist Doctor Treatment Clinic at Chennai, Tamilnadu, India






 Obesity Obesity in absolute terms is an increase of body fatty tissue mass. In a practical setting it is difficult to measure this directly, and obesity is typically measured by BMI (body mass index) and in terms of its distribution through waist circumference or waist-hip circumference ratio measurements. In addition, the presence of obesity needs to be evaluated in the context of other risk factors and co morbidities (other medical conditions that could influence risk of complications)  BMI Body mass index or BMI is a simple and widely used method for estimating body fat mass. BMI was developed in the 19th century by the Belgian statistician and anthropometrist Adolphe Quetelet. BMI is an accurate reflection of body fat percentage in the majority of the adult population, but is less accurate in situations that affect body composition such as in body builders and pregnancy.   BMI is calculated by dividing the subject's weight by the square of his/her height, typically expressed either in metric or US "Customary" units:  Metric: BMI = kg / m2  Where kg is the subject's weight in kilograms and m is the subject's height in metres.  US/Customary and imperial: BMI = lb * 703 / in2  Where lb is the subject's weight in pounds and in is the subject's height in inches.  The most commonly used definitions, established by the WHO in 1997 and published in 2000, provide the following values • A BMI less than 18.5 is underweight • A BMI of 18.5–24.9 is normal weight • A BMI of 25.0–29.9 is overweight • A BMI of 30.0–34.9 is class I obesity • A BMI of 35.0-39.9 is class II obesity • A BMI of > 40.0 is class III obesity or severe / morbidly obese • A BMI of 35.0 or higher in the presence of at least one other significant co morbidity is also classified by some bodies as morbid obesity  Waist circumference and waist hip ratio BMI does not take into account differing ratios of adipose to lean tissue; nor does it distinguish between differing forms of adiposity, some of which may correlate more closely with cardiovascular risk. Increasing understanding of the biology of different forms of adipose tissue has shown that visceral fat or central obesity (male-type or apple-type obesity, also known as "belly fat") has a much stronger correlation, particularly with cardiovascular disease, than the BMI alone  The absolute waist circumference (>102 cm in men and >88 cm in women) or waist-hip ratio (>0.9 for men and >0.85 for women) are both used as measures of central obesity. In a cohort of almost 15,000 subjects from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III study, waist circumference explained obesity-related health risk significantly better than BMI when metabolic syndrome was taken as an outcome measure.  Other body fat measurements • An alternative way to determine obesity is to assess percent body fat. Doctors and scientists generally agree that men with more than 25% body fat and women with more than 30% body fat are obese. However, it is difficult to measure body fat precisely.  • The most accepted method has been to weigh a person underwater, but underwater weighing is a procedure limited to laboratories with special equipment.  • Two simpler methods for measuring body fat are the skin fold test, in which a pinch of skin is precisely measured to determine the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer; or bioelectrical impedance analysis, usually only carried out at specialist clinics. Their routine use is discouraged.  Other measurements of body fat include computed tomography (CT/CAT scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/NMR), and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).   Risk factors and co morbidities The presence of risk factors and diseases associated with obesity are also used to establish a clinical diagnosis. Coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and sleep apnoea are possible life-threatening risk factors that would indicate clinical treatment of obesity. Smoking, hypertension, age and family history are other risk factors that may indicate treatment.  Effects on health Mortality • Mortality risk varies with BMI.  • The lowest risk is found at a BMI of 22-24 kg/m2 and increases with changes in either direction.  • A BMI of over 32 is associated with a doubling of risk of death.  Morbidity • A large number of medical conditions have been associated with obesity. Health consequences are categorised as being the result of either increased fat mass (osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, social stigma) or increased number of fat cells (diabetes, some forms of cancer, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). There are alterations in the body's response to insulin (insulin resistance), a pro inflammatory state and an increased tendency to thrombosis (prothrombotic state). • Disease associations may be dependent or independent of the distribution of adipose tissue. Central obesity (male-type or waist-predominant obesity, characterised by a high waist-hip ratio), is an important risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, the clustering of a number of diseases and risk factors that heavily predispose for cardiovascular disease. These are diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels (combined hyperlipidemia).  Apart from metabolic syndrome, obesity is related to a variety of other complications. Some are directly caused by obesity well others are more indirectly related, such as sharing a common cause like poor diet or sedentary lifestyle. • Cardiovascular: congestive heart failure, enlarged heart and its associated arrhythmias and dizziness, varicose veins, and pulmonary embolism • Endocrine: polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), menstrual disorders, and infertility. • Gastrointestinal: gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), fatty liver disease, cholelithiasis (gallstones), hernia, and colorectal cancer • Renal and genitourinary: erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, chronic renal failure, hypogonadism (male), breast cancer (female), uterine cancer (female), stillbirth • Integument (skin and appendages): stretch marks, acanthosis nigricans, lymphedema, cellulitis, carbuncles, intertrigo • Musculoskeletal: hyperuricemia (which predisposes to gout), immobility, osteoarthritis, low back pain • Neurologic: stroke, meralgia paresthetica, headache, carpal tunnel syndrome, dementia, idiopathic intracranial hypertension • Respiratory: obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, asthma • Psychological: Depression, low self esteem, body dysmorphic disorder, social stigmatization  Causes Most researchers agree that a combination of excessive calorie consumption and a sedentary lifestyle are the primary causes of obesity in the majority of the population. Other less well established or minor influences include genetic causes, medical and psychiatric illnesses, and microbiological causes.  A 2006 review identifies ten other possibly under investigated causes for recently increasing rates of obesity:  (1) Insufficient sleep,  (2) Endocrine disruptors - food substances that interfere with lipid metabolism,   (3) decreased variability in ambient temperature,  (4) decreased rates of smoking, which suppresses appetite,  (5) increased use of medication that leads to weight gain,  (6) Increased distribution of ethnic and age groups that tend to be heavier,  (7) Pregnancy at a later age,  (8) Intrauterine and intergenerational effects,  (9) Positive natural selection of people with a higher BMI,  (10) Assortative mating, heavier people tending to form relationships with each other.  Dietary  Sedentary lifestyle • An increasingly sedentary lifestyle plays a significant role in obesity.  • There has been a trend toward decreased physical activity due in part to increasingly mechanized forms of work,  • Changing modes of transportation, and increasing urbanization.  • Studies in children and adults have found an association between the number of hours of television watched and the prevalence of obesity. • Driving one's children to school also decreases the amount of exercise that these children get and has led to calls for reduced car use around schools. • An association between leisure time activity and obesity has been found.   Genetics Like many other medical conditions, obesity is the result of interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Polymorphisms in various genes controlling appetite, metabolism, and adipokine release may predispose to obesity when sufficient calories are present. Obesity is a major feature in a number of rare genetic conditions: Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, MOMO syndrome, leptin receptor mutations, melanocortin receptor mutations. In a people with early-onset severe obesity (defined by an onset before ten years of age and body mass index over three standard deviations above normal),   Medical illness Certain physical and mental illnesses and the pharmaceutical substances used to treat them can increase one's risk of obesity. Medical illnesses that increase obesity risk include several rare genetic syndromes (listed above) as well as some congenital or acquired conditions:  (1) Hypothyroidism,  (2) Cushing's syndrome,  (3) Growth hormone deficiency, (4) Eating disorders such bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and compulsive overeating. Certain medications may cause weight gain and or negative changes in body composition, such as steroids, atypical antipsychotics, some fertility medication, insulin and sulfonylureas.  Microbiological The role of bacteria colonizing the digestive tract in the development of obesity has recently become the subject of investigation. Bacteria participate in digestion (especially of fatty acids and polysaccharides), and alterations in the proportion of particular strains of bacteria may explain why certain people are more prone to weight gain than others. Human digestive tract bacteria are generally either member of the phyla of bacteroidetes or of firmicutes. In obese people, there is a relative abundance of firmicutes (which cause relatively high energy absorption), which is restored by weight loss. From these results it cannot be concluded whether this imbalance is the cause or effect of obesity.   Social determinants • The correlation between social class and BMI is inconsistent. Comparing net worth with BMI found obese Americanians approximately half as wealthy as thin ones. When income differentials were factored out, the inequity persisted. A tendency to rely on fast food is seen as one of the reasons why this result occurred. Another study found women who married into a higher social class are thinner than women who married into a lower social class.  • Men from lower middle income households were less likely to be obese than were those in the highest income households and women from middle income households had the highest rates of obesity. • Cessation of smoking verse continued smoking can leads to weight gain. A study found that those who quit smoking gained 4-5 kilograms over ten years. One sixth of the rise in obesity in North Americans can be attributed to falling rates of smoking.  Treatment for obesity  • Eating less and exercising more.  • Diet programs -Healthy diet • Anti-obesity drug  Homeopathy medicines works well for Obesity    Obesity Homeopathy Treatment  Symptomatic Homeopathy works well for Obesity, So its good to consult a experienced Homeopathy physician without any hesitation.     Whom to contact for Obesity Treatment  Dr.Senthil Kumar Treats many cases of Obesity, In his medical professional experience with successful results. Many patients get relief after taking treatment from Dr.Senthil Kumar.  Dr.Senthil Kumar visits Chennai at Vivekanantha Homeopathy Clinic, Velachery, Chennai 42. To get appointment please call 9786901830, +91 94430 54168 or mail to consult.ur.dr@gmail.com,    For more details & Consultation Feel free to contact us. Vivekanantha Clinic Consultation Champers at Chennai:- 9786901830  Panruti:- 9443054168  Pondicherry:- 9865212055 (Camp) Mail : consult.ur.dr@gmail.com, homoeokumar@gmail.com   For appointment please Call us or Mail Us  For appointment: SMS your Name -Age – Mobile Number - Problem in Single word - date and day - Place of appointment (Eg: Rajini – 30 - 99xxxxxxx0 – Obesity, – 21st Oct, Sunday - Chennai ), You will receive Appointment details through SMS              Fresh vegetables are common in a healthy diet. Generally, a healthy diet is said to include: 1. Sufficient calories to maintain a person's metabolic and activity needs, but not so excessive as to result in fat storage greater than roughly 30% of body mass. For most people the recommended daily allowance of energy is 2,000 calories, but it depends on age, sex, height, and weight.  2. Sufficient quantities of fat, including monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and saturated fat, with a balance of omega-6 and long-chain omega-3 lipids. The recommended daily allowance of fat is 65-80 grams. 3. Maintenance of a good ratio between carbohydrates and lipids (4:1): four grams of the first for one gram of the second. 4. Avoidance of excessive saturated fat (20grams recommended limit)  5. Avoidance of Trans fat. 6. Sufficient essential amino acids ("complete protein") to provide cellular replenishment and transport proteins. All essential amino acids are present in animals. A select few plants (such as soy and hemp) give all the essential acids. A combination of other plants may also provide all essential amino acids (except rice and beans which have limitations). 7. Essential micronutrients such as vitamins and certain minerals. 8. Avoiding directly poisonous (e.g. heavy metals) and carcinogenic (e.g. benzene) substances; 9. Avoiding foods contaminated by human pathogens (e.g. E. coli, tapeworm eggs); 10. Avoiding chronic high doses of certain foods that are benign or beneficial in small or occasional doses, such as  • foods that may burden or exhaust normal functions (e.g. refined carbohydrates without adequate dietary fibre); • foods that may interfere at high doses with other body processes (e.g. refined table salt); • Foods or substances with directly toxic properties at high chronic doses (e.g. ethyl alcohol).   Healthy Weight “Pyramid."  It's suggestions are: • An unlimited number of servings of fruits per day, with a minimum of three servings. • An unlimited number of servings of vegetables per day, with a minimum of four servings. • Four to eight servings of carbohydrates per day. • Three to seven servings of protein and dairy per day. • Three to five servings of fats per day. • And up to 75 calories of sweets per day. • Make sure that you eat five different types of fruit and vegetables every day. Every day also make sure that you eat at least one thing from each of the different food groups: Carbohydrates, Fruit and vegetables, Protein, Dairy, and Fats. Remember to eat the most fruit and vegetables, and the least fats. • Too much salt gives you high blood pressure; a high fat diet will give you hard and narrow arteries that could lead to heart attacks and strokes, possibly even death. • Fruit and vegetables contain antioxidants which will keep you healthy as long as you team them up with regular daily exercise. Your efforts to eat healthily will go to waste if you do not take part in regular daily exercise. • Having fibre in your diet will help regulate your digestive system. • Remember to keep track of what you're eating. Having a healthy diet is all about watching what you intake and what you're using. It takes about three months to get the diet right. You need to figure out how many calories you're burning a day and then how many you're taking in. If this is all too much math or you don't feel like writing this all out, just keep track of what you are eating and then go to your nearest hospital and a Registered Dietician will help you figure out what you need to be taking in. The reason you should do this is because often times people don't really know what they should be eating, and they guess; and sadly when they guess they normally guess wrong.    Food additive  Some claim that food additives, such as artificial sweeteners, colorants, preserving agents, and flavourings may cause health problems such as increasing the risk of cancer or ADHD.   Junk food • That is unhealthy and/or has little or no nutritional value. The term is believed to have been coined by Michael Jacobson, director of the Centre for Science in the Public Interest, in 1972. The term has since come into common usage. • Junk food contains high levels of refined sugar, white flour, trans fat and polyunsaturated fat, salt, and numerous food additives such as monosodium glutamate and tartrazine; at the same time, it is lacking in proteins, vitamins and fibre, among other healthy attributes. It is popular with suppliers because it is relatively cheap to manufacture, has a long shelf life and may not require refrigeration. It is popular with American consumers, as well as other consumers from all over the world, because it is easy to purchase, requires little or no preparation, is convenient to consume and has lots of flavour. Consumption of junk food in America has been associated with obesity, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes and dental cavities. There is also concern about the targeting of marketing to children.  Classification What constitutes unhealthy food may be confusing and, according to critics, includes elements of class snobbery, cultural influence and moral judgement. For example, fast food in North America, such as as hamburgers and French fries supplied by companies like McDonald's, KFC and Pizza Hut, are often perceived as junk food, whereas the same meals supplied by more up-market outlets such as California Pizza Kitchen or Nando's are not, despite often having the same or worse nutritional content. Some foods that are considered ethnic or traditional are not generally considered junk food, such as falafel, gyro, pakora, gyoza or chicharron, though all of these foods have little nutritional value and are usually high in fat from being fried in oil. Other foods such as white rice or roast potatoes are not considered junk food despite having limited nutritional content compared to wholegrain foods. Similarly, breakfast cereals are often regarded as healthy but may have high levels of sugar, salt and fat.   Hostess Twinkies • Some types of chips that are said to be "junk food" may actually be partially harmful because they may contain polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. It should also be understood that the detrimental effects of the empty calories may outweigh the benefits of the unsaturated fats. These foods tend to be high in sodium, which may contribute in causing hypertension (high blood pressure) in people sensitive to its effects with an existing electrolyte imbalance or inability to excrete sodium properly. • In the United Kingdom, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) do not use the term "junk food", and describe food as "HFSS" (high fat, sugar or salt) instead, based on a nutrient profiling model. They state that "HFSS foods can form part of a balanced diet, but research shows that children's diets contain too much fat (especially saturated fat), salt and sugar, and not enough fruit and vegetables." • Eating a poor diet when pregnant or breastfeeding may cause long-lasting health damage,    Physical exercise A physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health. It is often practiced to strengthen muscles and the cardiovascular system, and to hone athletic skills. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent diseases of affluence such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity. It also improves mental health and helps prevent depression.  Types of exercise Exercises are generally grouped into three types depending on the overall effect they have on the human body: • Flexibility exercises such as stretching improve the range of motion of muscles and joints. • Aerobic exercises such as cycling, walking, running, hiking or playing tennis focus on increasing cardiovascular endurance. • Anaerobic exercises such as weight training, functional training or sprinting increase short-term muscle strength.  Exercise benefits • Physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute positively to maintaining a healthy weight, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system. • Frequent and regular aerobic exercise has been shown to help prevent or treat serious and life-threatening chronic conditions such as high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, insomnia, and depression. Strength training appears to have continuous energy-burning effects that persist for about 24 hours after the training, though they do not offer the same cardiovascular benefits as aerobic exercises do. • There is conflicting evidence as to whether vigorous exercise (more than 70% of VO2 Max) is more or less beneficial than moderate exercise (40 to 70% of VO2 Max). Some studies have shown that vigorous exercise executed by healthy individuals can effectively increase opioid peptides (aka endorphins, a naturally occurring opiate that in conjunction with other neurotransmitters is responsible for exercise induced euphoria and has been shown to be addictive), positively influence hormone production (i.e., increase testosterone and growth hormone), benefits that are not as fully realized with moderate exercise. • Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functioning via improvement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, and enhancement of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. In addition, physical activity has been shown to be neuro protective in many neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. For instance, it reduces the risk of developing dementia. Furthermore, anecdotal evidence suggests that frequent exercise may reverse alcohol-induced brain damage. • Physical activity is thought to have other beneficial effects related to cognition as it increases levels of nerve growth factors, which support the survival and growth of a number of neuronal cells. • Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise also work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart by increasing cardiac volume (aerobic exercise), or myocardial thickness (strength training, see Organ hypertrophy). • Not everyone benefits equally from exercise. There is tremendous variation in individual response to training: where most people will see a moderate increase in endurance from aerobic exercise, some individuals will as much as double their oxygen uptake, while others will never get any benefit at all from the exercise. Similarly, only a minority of people will show significant muscle growth after prolonged weight training, while a larger fraction experience improvements in strength. This genetic variation in improvement from training is one of the key physiological differences between elite athletes and the larger population. Studies have shown that exercising in middle age leads to better physical ability later in life.  Common misconceptions Many myths have arisen surrounding exercise, some of which have a basis in reality, and some which are completely false. Myths include: • That excessive exercise can cause immediate death. Death by exercise has some small basis in fact. Water intoxication can result from prolific sweating (producing electrolyte losses) combined with consumption of large amounts of plain water and insufficient replenishment of electrolytes, especially salt and potassium (e.g. when running a marathon). It is also possible to die from a heart attack or similar affliction if overly intense exercise is performed by someone who is not at an appropriate level of fitness for that particular activity. A doctor should always be consulted before any radical changes are made to a person's current exercise regimen. Rhabdomyolysis is also a risk. Other common dangers may occur from extreme overheating or aggravation of a physical defect, such as a thrombosis or aneurysm. • That weightlifting makes you short or stops growth. One caveat is that heavy weight training in adolescents can damage the epiphyseal plate of long bones. Targeted fat reduction Spot reduction is a myth that exercise and training a particular body part will preferentially shed the fat on that part; for example, that doing sit-ups is the most direct way to reduce subcutaneous belly fat. This is false: one cannot reduce fat from one area of the body to the exclusion of others. Most of the energy derived from fat gets to the muscle through the bloodstream and reduces stored fat in the entire body, from the last place where fat was deposited. Sit-ups may improve the size and shape of abdominal muscles but will not specifically target belly fat for loss. Such exercise might help reduce overall body fat and shrink the size of fat cells. There is a very slight increase in the fat burnt at the area being exercised (e.g. abs) compared with the rest of the body, due to the extra blood flow at this area.  Muscle and fat tissue Some people incorrectly believe that muscle tissue will turn into fat tissue once a person stops exercising. This is not literally true — fat tissue and muscle tissue are fundamentally different — but the common expression that "muscle will turn to fat" is truthful in the sense that catabolism of muscle fibres for energy can result in excess glucose being stored as fat. Moreover, the composition of a body part can change toward less muscle and more fat, so that a cross-section of the upper-arm for example, will have a greater area corresponding to fat and a smaller area corresponding to muscle. This is not muscle "turning into fat" however — it is simply a combination of muscle atrophy and increased fat storage in different tissues of the same body part. Another element of increased fatty deposits is that of diet, as most trainees will not significantly reduce their diet in order to compensate for the lack of exercise/activity.  Excessive exercise • Exercise is a stressor and the stresses of exercise have a catabolic effect on the body - contractile proteins within muscles are consumed for energy, carbohydrates and fats are similarly consumed and connective tissues are stressed and can form micro-tears. However, given adequate nutrition and sufficient rest to avoid overtraining, the body's reaction to this stimulus is to adapt and replete tissues at a higher level than that existing before exercising. The results are all the training effects of regular exercise: increased muscular strength, endurance, bone density, and connective tissue toughness. • Too much exercise can be harmful. The body parts exercised need at least a day of rest, which is why some health experts say one should exercise every other day or 3 times a week. Without proper rest, the chance of stroke or other circulation problems increases, and muscle tissue may develop slowly. It has also been noted by the medical field that expectant mothers should never exercise two days consecutively. • Inappropriate exercise can do more harm than good, with the definition of "inappropriate" varying according to the individual. For many activities, especially running, there are significant injuries that occur with poorly regimented exercise schedules. In extreme instances, over-exercising induces serious performance loss. Unaccustomed overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to muscle) most often seen in new army recruits. Another danger is overtraining in which the intensity or volume of training exceeds the body's capacity to recover between bouts. • Stopping excessive exercise suddenly can also create a change in mood. Feelings of depression and agitation can occur when withdrawal from the natural endorphins produced by exercise occurs. Exercise should be controlled by each body's inherent limitations. While one set of joints and muscles may have the tolerance to withstand multiple marathons, another body may be damaged by 20 minutes of light jogging. This must be determined by each individual. • Too much exercise can also cause a female to miss her period, a symptom known as amenorrhea.   Nutrition and recovery • Proper nutrition is at least as important to health as exercise. When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of macronutrients whilst providing ample micronutrients, in order to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise. • Proper rest and recovery are also as important to health as exercise; otherwise the body exists in a permanently injured state and will not improve or adapt adequately to the exercise. Hence, it is important to remember to allow adequate recovery between exercise sessions. • The above two factors can be compromised by psychological compulsions (eating disorders such as exercise bulimia, anorexia, and other bulimias), misinformation, a lack of organization, or a lack of motivation. These all lead to a decreased state of health. • Delayed onset muscle soreness can occur after any kind of exercise, particularly if the body is in an unconditioned state relative to that exercise.  Exercise and brain function In the long term, exercise is beneficial to the brain by: • Increasing the blood and oxygen flow to the brain • Increasing growth factors that help create new nerve cells and promote synaptic plasticity • Increasing chemicals in the brain that help cognition, such as dopamine, glutamate, norepinephrine, and serotonin  Categories of physical exercise • Aerobic exercise • Anaerobic exercise • Strength training • Agility training        ==--==




Obesity
Obesity in absolute terms is an increase of body fatty tissue mass. In a practical setting it is difficult to measure this directly, and obesity is typically measured by BMI (body mass index) and in terms of its distribution through waist circumference or waist-hip circumference ratio measurements. In addition, the presence of obesity needs to be evaluated in the context of other risk factors and co morbidities (other medical conditions that could influence risk of complications)

BMI
Body mass index or BMI is a simple and widely used method for estimating body fat mass. BMI was developed in the 19th century by the Belgian statistician and anthropometrist Adolphe Quetelet. BMI is an accurate reflection of body fat percentage in the majority of the adult population, but is less accurate in situations that affect body composition such as in body builders and pregnancy.

BMI is calculated by dividing the subject's weight by the square of his/her height, typically expressed either in metric or US "Customary" units:

Metric: BMI = kg / m2

Where kg is the subject's weight in kilograms and m is the subject's height in metres.

US/Customary and imperial: BMI = lb * 703 / in2

Where lb is the subject's weight in pounds and in is the subject's height in inches.

The most commonly used definitions, established by the WHO in 1997 and published in 2000, provide the following values
•        A BMI less than 18.5 is underweight
•        A BMI of 18.5–24.9 is normal weight
•        A BMI of 25.0–29.9 is overweight
•        A BMI of 30.0–34.9 is class I obesity
•        A BMI of 35.0-39.9 is class II obesity
•        A BMI of > 40.0 is class III obesity or severe / morbidly obese
•        A BMI of 35.0 or higher in the presence of at least one other significant co morbidity is also classified by some bodies as morbid obesity

Waist circumference and waist hip ratio
BMI does not take into account differing ratios of adipose to lean tissue; nor does it distinguish between differing forms of adiposity, some of which may correlate more closely with cardiovascular risk. Increasing understanding of the biology of different forms of adipose tissue has shown that visceral fat or central obesity (male-type or apple-type obesity, also known as "belly fat") has a much stronger correlation, particularly with cardiovascular disease, than the BMI alone

The absolute waist circumference (>102 cm in men and >88 cm in women) or waist-hip ratio (>0.9 for men and >0.85 for women) are both used as measures of central obesity.
In a cohort of almost 15,000 subjects from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III study, waist circumference explained obesity-related health risk significantly better than BMI when metabolic syndrome was taken as an outcome measure.

Other body fat measurements
  • An alternative way to determine obesity is to assess percent body fat. Doctors and scientists generally agree that men with more than 25% body fat and women with more than 30% body fat are obese. However, it is difficult to measure body fat precisely.
  • The most accepted method has been to weigh a person underwater, but underwater weighing is a procedure limited to laboratories with special equipment.
  • Two simpler methods for measuring body fat are the skin fold test, in which a pinch of skin is precisely measured to determine the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer; or bioelectrical impedance analysis, usually only carried out at specialist clinics. Their routine use is discouraged.

Other measurements of body fat include computed tomography (CT/CAT scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/NMR), and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

Risk factors and co morbidities
The presence of risk factors and diseases associated with obesity are also used to establish a clinical diagnosis. Coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and sleep apnoea are possible life-threatening risk factors that would indicate clinical treatment of obesity. Smoking, hypertension, age and family history are other risk factors that may indicate treatment.

Effects on health
Mortality
  • Mortality risk varies with BMI.
  • The lowest risk is found at a BMI of 22-24 kg/m2 and increases with changes in either direction.
  • A BMI of over 32 is associated with a doubling of risk of death.

Morbidity
  • A large number of medical conditions have been associated with obesity. Health consequences are categorised as being the result of either increased fat mass (osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, social stigma) or increased number of fat cells (diabetes, some forms of cancer, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). There are alterations in the body's response to insulin (insulin resistance), a pro inflammatory state and an increased tendency to thrombosis (prothrombotic state).
  • Disease associations may be dependent or independent of the distribution of adipose tissue. Central obesity (male-type or waist-predominant obesity, characterised by a high waist-hip ratio), is an important risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, the clustering of a number of diseases and risk factors that heavily predispose for cardiovascular disease. These are diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels (combined hyperlipidemia).

Apart from metabolic syndrome, obesity is related to a variety of other complications. Some are directly caused by obesity well others are more indirectly related, such as sharing a common cause like poor diet or sedentary lifestyle.
  • Cardiovascular: congestive heart failure, enlarged heart and its associated arrhythmias and dizziness, varicose veins, and pulmonary embolism
  • Endocrine: polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), menstrual disorders, and infertility.
  • Gastrointestinal: gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), fatty liver disease, cholelithiasis (gallstones), hernia, and colorectal cancer
  • Renal and genitourinary: erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, chronic renal failure, hypogonadism (male), breast cancer (female), uterine cancer (female), stillbirth
  • Integument (skin and appendages): stretch marks, acanthosis nigricans, lymphedema, cellulitis, carbuncles, intertrigo
  • Musculoskeletal: hyperuricemia (which predisposes to gout), immobility, osteoarthritis, low back pain
  • Neurologic: stroke, meralgia paresthetica, headache, carpal tunnel syndrome, dementia, idiopathic intracranial hypertension
  • Respiratory: obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, asthma
  • Psychological: Depression, low self esteem, body dysmorphic disorder, social stigmatization

Causes
Most researchers agree that a combination of excessive calorie consumption and a sedentary lifestyle are the primary causes of obesity in the majority of the population. Other less well established or minor influences include genetic causes, medical and psychiatric illnesses, and microbiological causes.
A 2006 review identifies ten other possibly under investigated causes for recently increasing rates of obesity:
(1) Insufficient sleep,
(2) Endocrine disruptors - food substances that interfere with lipid metabolism, 
(3) decreased variability in ambient temperature,
(4) decreased rates of smoking, which suppresses appetite,
(5) increased use of medication that leads to weight gain,
(6) Increased distribution of ethnic and age groups that tend to be heavier,
(7) Pregnancy at a later age,
(8) Intrauterine and intergenerational effects,
(9) Positive natural selection of people with a higher BMI,
(10) Assortative mating, heavier people tending to form relationships with each other.

Dietary

Sedentary lifestyle
  • An increasingly sedentary lifestyle plays a significant role in obesity.
  • There has been a trend toward decreased physical activity due in part to increasingly mechanized forms of work,
  • Changing modes of transportation, and increasing urbanization.
  • Studies in children and adults have found an association between the number of hours of television watched and the prevalence of obesity.
  • Driving one's children to school also decreases the amount of exercise that these children get and has led to calls for reduced car use around schools.
  • An association between leisure time activity and obesity has been found.

Genetics
Like many other medical conditions, obesity is the result of interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Polymorphisms in various genes controlling appetite, metabolism, and adipokine release may predispose to obesity when sufficient calories are present. Obesity is a major feature in a number of rare genetic conditions: Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, MOMO syndrome, leptin receptor mutations, melanocortin receptor mutations. In a people with early-onset severe obesity (defined by an onset before ten years of age and body mass index over three standard deviations above normal),

Medical illness
Certain physical and mental illnesses and the pharmaceutical substances used to treat them can increase one's risk of obesity. Medical illnesses that increase obesity risk include several rare genetic syndromes (listed above) as well as some congenital or acquired conditions:
(1) Hypothyroidism,
(2) Cushing's syndrome,
(3) Growth hormone deficiency,
(4) Eating disorders such bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and compulsive overeating.
Certain medications may cause weight gain and or negative changes in body composition, such as steroids, atypical antipsychotics, some fertility medication, insulin and sulfonylureas.

Microbiological
The role of bacteria colonizing the digestive tract in the development of obesity has recently become the subject of investigation. Bacteria participate in digestion (especially of fatty acids and polysaccharides), and alterations in the proportion of particular strains of bacteria may explain why certain people are more prone to weight gain than others. Human digestive tract bacteria are generally either member of the phyla of bacteroidetes or of firmicutes. In obese people, there is a relative abundance of firmicutes (which cause relatively high energy absorption), which is restored by weight loss. From these results it cannot be concluded whether this imbalance is the cause or effect of obesity.

Social determinants
  • The correlation between social class and BMI is inconsistent. Comparing net worth with BMI found obese Americanians approximately half as wealthy as thin ones. When income differentials were factored out, the inequity persisted. A tendency to rely on fast food is seen as one of the reasons why this result occurred. Another study found women who married into a higher social class are thinner than women who married into a lower social class.
  • Men from lower middle income households were less likely to be obese than were those in the highest income households and women from middle income households had the highest rates of obesity.
  • Cessation of smoking verse continued smoking can leads to weight gain. A study found that those who quit smoking gained 4-5 kilograms over ten years. One sixth of the rise in obesity in North Americans can be attributed to falling rates of smoking.

Treatment for obesity
  • Eating less and exercising more.
  • Diet programs -Healthy diet
  • Anti-obesity drug

Homeopathy medicines works well for Obesity



Obesity Homeopathy Treatment

Symptomatic Homeopathy works well for Obesity, So its good to consult a experienced Homeopathy physician without any hesitation.




Whom to contact for Obesity Treatment
Dr.Senthil Kumar Treats many cases of Obesity, In his medical professional experience with successful results. Many patients get relief after taking treatment from Dr.Senthil Kumar.  Dr.Senthil Kumar visits Chennai at Vivekanantha Homeopathy Clinic, Velachery, Chennai 42. To get appointment please call 9786901830, +91 94430 54168 or mail to consult.ur.dr@gmail.com,

 Obesity Obesity in absolute terms is an increase of body fatty tissue mass. In a practical setting it is difficult to measure this directly, and obesity is typically measured by BMI (body mass index) and in terms of its distribution through waist circumference or waist-hip circumference ratio measurements. In addition, the presence of obesity needs to be evaluated in the context of other risk factors and co morbidities (other medical conditions that could influence risk of complications)  BMI Body mass index or BMI is a simple and widely used method for estimating body fat mass. BMI was developed in the 19th century by the Belgian statistician and anthropometrist Adolphe Quetelet. BMI is an accurate reflection of body fat percentage in the majority of the adult population, but is less accurate in situations that affect body composition such as in body builders and pregnancy.   BMI is calculated by dividing the subject's weight by the square of his/her height, typically expressed either in metric or US "Customary" units:  Metric: BMI = kg / m2  Where kg is the subject's weight in kilograms and m is the subject's height in metres.  US/Customary and imperial: BMI = lb * 703 / in2  Where lb is the subject's weight in pounds and in is the subject's height in inches.  The most commonly used definitions, established by the WHO in 1997 and published in 2000, provide the following values • A BMI less than 18.5 is underweight • A BMI of 18.5–24.9 is normal weight • A BMI of 25.0–29.9 is overweight • A BMI of 30.0–34.9 is class I obesity • A BMI of 35.0-39.9 is class II obesity • A BMI of > 40.0 is class III obesity or severe / morbidly obese • A BMI of 35.0 or higher in the presence of at least one other significant co morbidity is also classified by some bodies as morbid obesity  Waist circumference and waist hip ratio BMI does not take into account differing ratios of adipose to lean tissue; nor does it distinguish between differing forms of adiposity, some of which may correlate more closely with cardiovascular risk. Increasing understanding of the biology of different forms of adipose tissue has shown that visceral fat or central obesity (male-type or apple-type obesity, also known as "belly fat") has a much stronger correlation, particularly with cardiovascular disease, than the BMI alone  The absolute waist circumference (>102 cm in men and >88 cm in women) or waist-hip ratio (>0.9 for men and >0.85 for women) are both used as measures of central obesity. In a cohort of almost 15,000 subjects from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III study, waist circumference explained obesity-related health risk significantly better than BMI when metabolic syndrome was taken as an outcome measure.  Other body fat measurements • An alternative way to determine obesity is to assess percent body fat. Doctors and scientists generally agree that men with more than 25% body fat and women with more than 30% body fat are obese. However, it is difficult to measure body fat precisely.  • The most accepted method has been to weigh a person underwater, but underwater weighing is a procedure limited to laboratories with special equipment.  • Two simpler methods for measuring body fat are the skin fold test, in which a pinch of skin is precisely measured to determine the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer; or bioelectrical impedance analysis, usually only carried out at specialist clinics. Their routine use is discouraged.  Other measurements of body fat include computed tomography (CT/CAT scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/NMR), and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).   Risk factors and co morbidities The presence of risk factors and diseases associated with obesity are also used to establish a clinical diagnosis. Coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and sleep apnoea are possible life-threatening risk factors that would indicate clinical treatment of obesity. Smoking, hypertension, age and family history are other risk factors that may indicate treatment.  Effects on health Mortality • Mortality risk varies with BMI.  • The lowest risk is found at a BMI of 22-24 kg/m2 and increases with changes in either direction.  • A BMI of over 32 is associated with a doubling of risk of death.  Morbidity • A large number of medical conditions have been associated with obesity. Health consequences are categorised as being the result of either increased fat mass (osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, social stigma) or increased number of fat cells (diabetes, some forms of cancer, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease). There are alterations in the body's response to insulin (insulin resistance), a pro inflammatory state and an increased tendency to thrombosis (prothrombotic state). • Disease associations may be dependent or independent of the distribution of adipose tissue. Central obesity (male-type or waist-predominant obesity, characterised by a high waist-hip ratio), is an important risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, the clustering of a number of diseases and risk factors that heavily predispose for cardiovascular disease. These are diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and triglyceride levels (combined hyperlipidemia).  Apart from metabolic syndrome, obesity is related to a variety of other complications. Some are directly caused by obesity well others are more indirectly related, such as sharing a common cause like poor diet or sedentary lifestyle. • Cardiovascular: congestive heart failure, enlarged heart and its associated arrhythmias and dizziness, varicose veins, and pulmonary embolism • Endocrine: polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), menstrual disorders, and infertility. • Gastrointestinal: gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), fatty liver disease, cholelithiasis (gallstones), hernia, and colorectal cancer • Renal and genitourinary: erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, chronic renal failure, hypogonadism (male), breast cancer (female), uterine cancer (female), stillbirth • Integument (skin and appendages): stretch marks, acanthosis nigricans, lymphedema, cellulitis, carbuncles, intertrigo • Musculoskeletal: hyperuricemia (which predisposes to gout), immobility, osteoarthritis, low back pain • Neurologic: stroke, meralgia paresthetica, headache, carpal tunnel syndrome, dementia, idiopathic intracranial hypertension • Respiratory: obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, asthma • Psychological: Depression, low self esteem, body dysmorphic disorder, social stigmatization  Causes Most researchers agree that a combination of excessive calorie consumption and a sedentary lifestyle are the primary causes of obesity in the majority of the population. Other less well established or minor influences include genetic causes, medical and psychiatric illnesses, and microbiological causes.  A 2006 review identifies ten other possibly under investigated causes for recently increasing rates of obesity:  (1) Insufficient sleep,  (2) Endocrine disruptors - food substances that interfere with lipid metabolism,   (3) decreased variability in ambient temperature,  (4) decreased rates of smoking, which suppresses appetite,  (5) increased use of medication that leads to weight gain,  (6) Increased distribution of ethnic and age groups that tend to be heavier,  (7) Pregnancy at a later age,  (8) Intrauterine and intergenerational effects,  (9) Positive natural selection of people with a higher BMI,  (10) Assortative mating, heavier people tending to form relationships with each other.  Dietary  Sedentary lifestyle • An increasingly sedentary lifestyle plays a significant role in obesity.  • There has been a trend toward decreased physical activity due in part to increasingly mechanized forms of work,  • Changing modes of transportation, and increasing urbanization.  • Studies in children and adults have found an association between the number of hours of television watched and the prevalence of obesity. • Driving one's children to school also decreases the amount of exercise that these children get and has led to calls for reduced car use around schools. • An association between leisure time activity and obesity has been found.   Genetics Like many other medical conditions, obesity is the result of interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Polymorphisms in various genes controlling appetite, metabolism, and adipokine release may predispose to obesity when sufficient calories are present. Obesity is a major feature in a number of rare genetic conditions: Prader-Willi syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, MOMO syndrome, leptin receptor mutations, melanocortin receptor mutations. In a people with early-onset severe obesity (defined by an onset before ten years of age and body mass index over three standard deviations above normal),   Medical illness Certain physical and mental illnesses and the pharmaceutical substances used to treat them can increase one's risk of obesity. Medical illnesses that increase obesity risk include several rare genetic syndromes (listed above) as well as some congenital or acquired conditions:  (1) Hypothyroidism,  (2) Cushing's syndrome,  (3) Growth hormone deficiency, (4) Eating disorders such bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and compulsive overeating. Certain medications may cause weight gain and or negative changes in body composition, such as steroids, atypical antipsychotics, some fertility medication, insulin and sulfonylureas.  Microbiological The role of bacteria colonizing the digestive tract in the development of obesity has recently become the subject of investigation. Bacteria participate in digestion (especially of fatty acids and polysaccharides), and alterations in the proportion of particular strains of bacteria may explain why certain people are more prone to weight gain than others. Human digestive tract bacteria are generally either member of the phyla of bacteroidetes or of firmicutes. In obese people, there is a relative abundance of firmicutes (which cause relatively high energy absorption), which is restored by weight loss. From these results it cannot be concluded whether this imbalance is the cause or effect of obesity.   Social determinants • The correlation between social class and BMI is inconsistent. Comparing net worth with BMI found obese Americanians approximately half as wealthy as thin ones. When income differentials were factored out, the inequity persisted. A tendency to rely on fast food is seen as one of the reasons why this result occurred. Another study found women who married into a higher social class are thinner than women who married into a lower social class.  • Men from lower middle income households were less likely to be obese than were those in the highest income households and women from middle income households had the highest rates of obesity. • Cessation of smoking verse continued smoking can leads to weight gain. A study found that those who quit smoking gained 4-5 kilograms over ten years. One sixth of the rise in obesity in North Americans can be attributed to falling rates of smoking.  Treatment for obesity  • Eating less and exercising more.  • Diet programs -Healthy diet • Anti-obesity drug  Homeopathy medicines works well for Obesity    Obesity Homeopathy Treatment  Symptomatic Homeopathy works well for Obesity, So its good to consult a experienced Homeopathy physician without any hesitation.     Whom to contact for Obesity Treatment  Dr.Senthil Kumar Treats many cases of Obesity, In his medical professional experience with successful results. Many patients get relief after taking treatment from Dr.Senthil Kumar.  Dr.Senthil Kumar visits Chennai at Vivekanantha Homeopathy Clinic, Velachery, Chennai 42. To get appointment please call 9786901830, +91 94430 54168 or mail to consult.ur.dr@gmail.com,    For more details & Consultation Feel free to contact us. Vivekanantha Clinic Consultation Champers at Chennai:- 9786901830  Panruti:- 9443054168  Pondicherry:- 9865212055 (Camp) Mail : consult.ur.dr@gmail.com, homoeokumar@gmail.com   For appointment please Call us or Mail Us  For appointment: SMS your Name -Age – Mobile Number - Problem in Single word - date and day - Place of appointment (Eg: Rajini – 30 - 99xxxxxxx0 – Obesity, – 21st Oct, Sunday - Chennai ), You will receive Appointment details through SMS              Fresh vegetables are common in a healthy diet. Generally, a healthy diet is said to include: 1. Sufficient calories to maintain a person's metabolic and activity needs, but not so excessive as to result in fat storage greater than roughly 30% of body mass. For most people the recommended daily allowance of energy is 2,000 calories, but it depends on age, sex, height, and weight.  2. Sufficient quantities of fat, including monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and saturated fat, with a balance of omega-6 and long-chain omega-3 lipids. The recommended daily allowance of fat is 65-80 grams. 3. Maintenance of a good ratio between carbohydrates and lipids (4:1): four grams of the first for one gram of the second. 4. Avoidance of excessive saturated fat (20grams recommended limit)  5. Avoidance of Trans fat. 6. Sufficient essential amino acids ("complete protein") to provide cellular replenishment and transport proteins. All essential amino acids are present in animals. A select few plants (such as soy and hemp) give all the essential acids. A combination of other plants may also provide all essential amino acids (except rice and beans which have limitations). 7. Essential micronutrients such as vitamins and certain minerals. 8. Avoiding directly poisonous (e.g. heavy metals) and carcinogenic (e.g. benzene) substances; 9. Avoiding foods contaminated by human pathogens (e.g. E. coli, tapeworm eggs); 10. Avoiding chronic high doses of certain foods that are benign or beneficial in small or occasional doses, such as  • foods that may burden or exhaust normal functions (e.g. refined carbohydrates without adequate dietary fibre); • foods that may interfere at high doses with other body processes (e.g. refined table salt); • Foods or substances with directly toxic properties at high chronic doses (e.g. ethyl alcohol).   Healthy Weight “Pyramid."  It's suggestions are: • An unlimited number of servings of fruits per day, with a minimum of three servings. • An unlimited number of servings of vegetables per day, with a minimum of four servings. • Four to eight servings of carbohydrates per day. • Three to seven servings of protein and dairy per day. • Three to five servings of fats per day. • And up to 75 calories of sweets per day. • Make sure that you eat five different types of fruit and vegetables every day. Every day also make sure that you eat at least one thing from each of the different food groups: Carbohydrates, Fruit and vegetables, Protein, Dairy, and Fats. Remember to eat the most fruit and vegetables, and the least fats. • Too much salt gives you high blood pressure; a high fat diet will give you hard and narrow arteries that could lead to heart attacks and strokes, possibly even death. • Fruit and vegetables contain antioxidants which will keep you healthy as long as you team them up with regular daily exercise. Your efforts to eat healthily will go to waste if you do not take part in regular daily exercise. • Having fibre in your diet will help regulate your digestive system. • Remember to keep track of what you're eating. Having a healthy diet is all about watching what you intake and what you're using. It takes about three months to get the diet right. You need to figure out how many calories you're burning a day and then how many you're taking in. If this is all too much math or you don't feel like writing this all out, just keep track of what you are eating and then go to your nearest hospital and a Registered Dietician will help you figure out what you need to be taking in. The reason you should do this is because often times people don't really know what they should be eating, and they guess; and sadly when they guess they normally guess wrong.    Food additive  Some claim that food additives, such as artificial sweeteners, colorants, preserving agents, and flavourings may cause health problems such as increasing the risk of cancer or ADHD.   Junk food • That is unhealthy and/or has little or no nutritional value. The term is believed to have been coined by Michael Jacobson, director of the Centre for Science in the Public Interest, in 1972. The term has since come into common usage. • Junk food contains high levels of refined sugar, white flour, trans fat and polyunsaturated fat, salt, and numerous food additives such as monosodium glutamate and tartrazine; at the same time, it is lacking in proteins, vitamins and fibre, among other healthy attributes. It is popular with suppliers because it is relatively cheap to manufacture, has a long shelf life and may not require refrigeration. It is popular with American consumers, as well as other consumers from all over the world, because it is easy to purchase, requires little or no preparation, is convenient to consume and has lots of flavour. Consumption of junk food in America has been associated with obesity, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes and dental cavities. There is also concern about the targeting of marketing to children.  Classification What constitutes unhealthy food may be confusing and, according to critics, includes elements of class snobbery, cultural influence and moral judgement. For example, fast food in North America, such as as hamburgers and French fries supplied by companies like McDonald's, KFC and Pizza Hut, are often perceived as junk food, whereas the same meals supplied by more up-market outlets such as California Pizza Kitchen or Nando's are not, despite often having the same or worse nutritional content. Some foods that are considered ethnic or traditional are not generally considered junk food, such as falafel, gyro, pakora, gyoza or chicharron, though all of these foods have little nutritional value and are usually high in fat from being fried in oil. Other foods such as white rice or roast potatoes are not considered junk food despite having limited nutritional content compared to wholegrain foods. Similarly, breakfast cereals are often regarded as healthy but may have high levels of sugar, salt and fat.   Hostess Twinkies • Some types of chips that are said to be "junk food" may actually be partially harmful because they may contain polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. It should also be understood that the detrimental effects of the empty calories may outweigh the benefits of the unsaturated fats. These foods tend to be high in sodium, which may contribute in causing hypertension (high blood pressure) in people sensitive to its effects with an existing electrolyte imbalance or inability to excrete sodium properly. • In the United Kingdom, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) do not use the term "junk food", and describe food as "HFSS" (high fat, sugar or salt) instead, based on a nutrient profiling model. They state that "HFSS foods can form part of a balanced diet, but research shows that children's diets contain too much fat (especially saturated fat), salt and sugar, and not enough fruit and vegetables." • Eating a poor diet when pregnant or breastfeeding may cause long-lasting health damage,    Physical exercise A physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health. It is often practiced to strengthen muscles and the cardiovascular system, and to hone athletic skills. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent diseases of affluence such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity. It also improves mental health and helps prevent depression.  Types of exercise Exercises are generally grouped into three types depending on the overall effect they have on the human body: • Flexibility exercises such as stretching improve the range of motion of muscles and joints. • Aerobic exercises such as cycling, walking, running, hiking or playing tennis focus on increasing cardiovascular endurance. • Anaerobic exercises such as weight training, functional training or sprinting increase short-term muscle strength.  Exercise benefits • Physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute positively to maintaining a healthy weight, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system. • Frequent and regular aerobic exercise has been shown to help prevent or treat serious and life-threatening chronic conditions such as high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, insomnia, and depression. Strength training appears to have continuous energy-burning effects that persist for about 24 hours after the training, though they do not offer the same cardiovascular benefits as aerobic exercises do. • There is conflicting evidence as to whether vigorous exercise (more than 70% of VO2 Max) is more or less beneficial than moderate exercise (40 to 70% of VO2 Max). Some studies have shown that vigorous exercise executed by healthy individuals can effectively increase opioid peptides (aka endorphins, a naturally occurring opiate that in conjunction with other neurotransmitters is responsible for exercise induced euphoria and has been shown to be addictive), positively influence hormone production (i.e., increase testosterone and growth hormone), benefits that are not as fully realized with moderate exercise. • Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functioning via improvement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, and enhancement of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. In addition, physical activity has been shown to be neuro protective in many neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. For instance, it reduces the risk of developing dementia. Furthermore, anecdotal evidence suggests that frequent exercise may reverse alcohol-induced brain damage. • Physical activity is thought to have other beneficial effects related to cognition as it increases levels of nerve growth factors, which support the survival and growth of a number of neuronal cells. • Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise also work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart by increasing cardiac volume (aerobic exercise), or myocardial thickness (strength training, see Organ hypertrophy). • Not everyone benefits equally from exercise. There is tremendous variation in individual response to training: where most people will see a moderate increase in endurance from aerobic exercise, some individuals will as much as double their oxygen uptake, while others will never get any benefit at all from the exercise. Similarly, only a minority of people will show significant muscle growth after prolonged weight training, while a larger fraction experience improvements in strength. This genetic variation in improvement from training is one of the key physiological differences between elite athletes and the larger population. Studies have shown that exercising in middle age leads to better physical ability later in life.  Common misconceptions Many myths have arisen surrounding exercise, some of which have a basis in reality, and some which are completely false. Myths include: • That excessive exercise can cause immediate death. Death by exercise has some small basis in fact. Water intoxication can result from prolific sweating (producing electrolyte losses) combined with consumption of large amounts of plain water and insufficient replenishment of electrolytes, especially salt and potassium (e.g. when running a marathon). It is also possible to die from a heart attack or similar affliction if overly intense exercise is performed by someone who is not at an appropriate level of fitness for that particular activity. A doctor should always be consulted before any radical changes are made to a person's current exercise regimen. Rhabdomyolysis is also a risk. Other common dangers may occur from extreme overheating or aggravation of a physical defect, such as a thrombosis or aneurysm. • That weightlifting makes you short or stops growth. One caveat is that heavy weight training in adolescents can damage the epiphyseal plate of long bones. Targeted fat reduction Spot reduction is a myth that exercise and training a particular body part will preferentially shed the fat on that part; for example, that doing sit-ups is the most direct way to reduce subcutaneous belly fat. This is false: one cannot reduce fat from one area of the body to the exclusion of others. Most of the energy derived from fat gets to the muscle through the bloodstream and reduces stored fat in the entire body, from the last place where fat was deposited. Sit-ups may improve the size and shape of abdominal muscles but will not specifically target belly fat for loss. Such exercise might help reduce overall body fat and shrink the size of fat cells. There is a very slight increase in the fat burnt at the area being exercised (e.g. abs) compared with the rest of the body, due to the extra blood flow at this area.  Muscle and fat tissue Some people incorrectly believe that muscle tissue will turn into fat tissue once a person stops exercising. This is not literally true — fat tissue and muscle tissue are fundamentally different — but the common expression that "muscle will turn to fat" is truthful in the sense that catabolism of muscle fibres for energy can result in excess glucose being stored as fat. Moreover, the composition of a body part can change toward less muscle and more fat, so that a cross-section of the upper-arm for example, will have a greater area corresponding to fat and a smaller area corresponding to muscle. This is not muscle "turning into fat" however — it is simply a combination of muscle atrophy and increased fat storage in different tissues of the same body part. Another element of increased fatty deposits is that of diet, as most trainees will not significantly reduce their diet in order to compensate for the lack of exercise/activity.  Excessive exercise • Exercise is a stressor and the stresses of exercise have a catabolic effect on the body - contractile proteins within muscles are consumed for energy, carbohydrates and fats are similarly consumed and connective tissues are stressed and can form micro-tears. However, given adequate nutrition and sufficient rest to avoid overtraining, the body's reaction to this stimulus is to adapt and replete tissues at a higher level than that existing before exercising. The results are all the training effects of regular exercise: increased muscular strength, endurance, bone density, and connective tissue toughness. • Too much exercise can be harmful. The body parts exercised need at least a day of rest, which is why some health experts say one should exercise every other day or 3 times a week. Without proper rest, the chance of stroke or other circulation problems increases, and muscle tissue may develop slowly. It has also been noted by the medical field that expectant mothers should never exercise two days consecutively. • Inappropriate exercise can do more harm than good, with the definition of "inappropriate" varying according to the individual. For many activities, especially running, there are significant injuries that occur with poorly regimented exercise schedules. In extreme instances, over-exercising induces serious performance loss. Unaccustomed overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to muscle) most often seen in new army recruits. Another danger is overtraining in which the intensity or volume of training exceeds the body's capacity to recover between bouts. • Stopping excessive exercise suddenly can also create a change in mood. Feelings of depression and agitation can occur when withdrawal from the natural endorphins produced by exercise occurs. Exercise should be controlled by each body's inherent limitations. While one set of joints and muscles may have the tolerance to withstand multiple marathons, another body may be damaged by 20 minutes of light jogging. This must be determined by each individual. • Too much exercise can also cause a female to miss her period, a symptom known as amenorrhea.   Nutrition and recovery • Proper nutrition is at least as important to health as exercise. When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of macronutrients whilst providing ample micronutrients, in order to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise. • Proper rest and recovery are also as important to health as exercise; otherwise the body exists in a permanently injured state and will not improve or adapt adequately to the exercise. Hence, it is important to remember to allow adequate recovery between exercise sessions. • The above two factors can be compromised by psychological compulsions (eating disorders such as exercise bulimia, anorexia, and other bulimias), misinformation, a lack of organization, or a lack of motivation. These all lead to a decreased state of health. • Delayed onset muscle soreness can occur after any kind of exercise, particularly if the body is in an unconditioned state relative to that exercise.  Exercise and brain function In the long term, exercise is beneficial to the brain by: • Increasing the blood and oxygen flow to the brain • Increasing growth factors that help create new nerve cells and promote synaptic plasticity • Increasing chemicals in the brain that help cognition, such as dopamine, glutamate, norepinephrine, and serotonin  Categories of physical exercise • Aerobic exercise • Anaerobic exercise • Strength training • Agility training        ==--== 
For more details & Consultation Feel free to contact us.
Vivekanantha Clinic Consultation Champers at
Chennai:- 9786901830
Panruti:- 9443054168
Pondicherry:- 9865212055 (Camp)

For appointment please Call us or Mail Us

For appointment: SMS your Name -Age – Mobile Number - Problem in Single word - date and day - Place of appointment (Eg: Rajini – 30 - 99xxxxxxx0 – Obesity, – 21st Oct, Sunday - Chennai ), You will receive Appointment details through SMS












Fresh vegetables are common in a healthy diet.
Generally, a healthy diet is said to include:
1. Sufficient calories to maintain a person's metabolic and activity needs, but not so excessive as to result in fat storage greater than roughly 30% of body mass. For most people the recommended daily allowance of energy is 2,000 calories, but it depends on age, sex, height, and weight.
2. Sufficient quantities of fat, including monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and saturated fat, with a balance of omega-6 and long-chain omega-3 lipids. The recommended daily allowance of fat is 65-80 grams.
3. Maintenance of a good ratio between carbohydrates and lipids (4:1): four grams of the first for one gram of the second.
4. Avoidance of excessive saturated fat (20grams recommended limit)
5. Avoidance of Trans fat.
6. Sufficient essential amino acids ("complete protein") to provide cellular replenishment and transport proteins. All essential amino acids are present in animals. A select few plants (such as soy and hemp) give all the essential acids. A combination of other plants may also provide all essential amino acids (except rice and beans which have limitations).
7. Essential micronutrients such as vitamins and certain minerals.
8. Avoiding directly poisonous (e.g. heavy metals) and carcinogenic (e.g. benzene) substances;
9. Avoiding foods contaminated by human pathogens (e.g. E. coli, tapeworm eggs);
10. Avoiding chronic high doses of certain foods that are benign or beneficial in small or occasional doses, such as
·         foods that may burden or exhaust normal functions (e.g. refined carbohydrates without adequate dietary fibre);
·         foods that may interfere at high doses with other body processes (e.g. refined table salt);
·         Foods or substances with directly toxic properties at high chronic doses (e.g. ethyl alcohol).


Healthy Weight “Pyramid."
It's suggestions are:
  • An unlimited number of servings of fruits per day, with a minimum of three servings.
  • An unlimited number of servings of vegetables per day, with a minimum of four servings.
  • Four to eight servings of carbohydrates per day.
  • Three to seven servings of protein and dairy per day.
  • Three to five servings of fats per day.
  • And up to 75 calories of sweets per day.
  • Make sure that you eat five different types of fruit and vegetables every day. Every day also make sure that you eat at least one thing from each of the different food groups: Carbohydrates, Fruit and vegetables, Protein, Dairy, and Fats. Remember to eat the most fruit and vegetables, and the least fats.
  • Too much salt gives you high blood pressure; a high fat diet will give you hard and narrow arteries that could lead to heart attacks and strokes, possibly even death.
  • Fruit and vegetables contain antioxidants which will keep you healthy as long as you team them up with regular daily exercise. Your efforts to eat healthily will go to waste if you do not take part in regular daily exercise.
  • Having fibre in your diet will help regulate your digestive system.
  • Remember to keep track of what you're eating. Having a healthy diet is all about watching what you intake and what you're using. It takes about three months to get the diet right. You need to figure out how many calories you're burning a day and then how many you're taking in. If this is all too much math or you don't feel like writing this all out, just keep track of what you are eating and then go to your nearest hospital and a Registered Dietician will help you figure out what you need to be taking in. The reason you should do this is because often times people don't really know what they should be eating, and they guess; and sadly when they guess they normally guess wrong.



Food additive
Some claim that food additives, such as artificial sweeteners, colorants, preserving agents, and flavourings may cause health problems such as increasing the risk of cancer or ADHD.

Junk food
  • That is unhealthy and/or has little or no nutritional value. The term is believed to have been coined by Michael Jacobson, director of the Centre for Science in the Public Interest, in 1972. The term has since come into common usage.
  • Junk food contains high levels of refined sugar, white flour, trans fat and polyunsaturated fat, salt, and numerous food additives such as monosodium glutamate and tartrazine; at the same time, it is lacking in proteins, vitamins and fibre, among other healthy attributes. It is popular with suppliers because it is relatively cheap to manufacture, has a long shelf life and may not require refrigeration. It is popular with American consumers, as well as other consumers from all over the world, because it is easy to purchase, requires little or no preparation, is convenient to consume and has lots of flavour. Consumption of junk food in America has been associated with obesity, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes and dental cavities. There is also concern about the targeting of marketing to children.

Classification
What constitutes unhealthy food may be confusing and, according to critics, includes elements of class snobbery, cultural influence and moral judgement. For example, fast food in North America, such as as hamburgers and French fries supplied by companies like McDonald's, KFC and Pizza Hut, are often perceived as junk food, whereas the same meals supplied by more up-market outlets such as California Pizza Kitchen or Nando's are not, despite often having the same or worse nutritional content. Some foods that are considered ethnic or traditional are not generally considered junk food, such as falafel, gyro, pakora, gyoza or chicharron, though all of these foods have little nutritional value and are usually high in fat from being fried in oil. Other foods such as white rice or roast potatoes are not considered junk food despite having limited nutritional content compared to wholegrain foods. Similarly, breakfast cereals are often regarded as healthy but may have high levels of sugar, salt and fat.

Hostess Twinkies
  • Some types of chips that are said to be "junk food" may actually be partially harmful because they may contain polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. It should also be understood that the detrimental effects of the empty calories may outweigh the benefits of the unsaturated fats. These foods tend to be high in sodium, which may contribute in causing hypertension (high blood pressure) in people sensitive to its effects with an existing electrolyte imbalance or inability to excrete sodium properly.
  • In the United Kingdom, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) do not use the term "junk food", and describe food as "HFSS" (high fat, sugar or salt) instead, based on a nutrient profiling model. They state that "HFSS foods can form part of a balanced diet, but research shows that children's diets contain too much fat (especially saturated fat), salt and sugar, and not enough fruit and vegetables."
  • Eating a poor diet when pregnant or breastfeeding may cause long-lasting health damage,


Physical exercise
A physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health. It is often practiced to strengthen muscles and the cardiovascular system, and to hone athletic skills. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent diseases of affluence such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity. It also improves mental health and helps prevent depression.

Types of exercise
Exercises are generally grouped into three types depending on the overall effect they have on the human body:
  • Flexibility exercises such as stretching improve the range of motion of muscles and joints.
  • Aerobic exercises such as cycling, walking, running, hiking or playing tennis focus on increasing cardiovascular endurance.
  • Anaerobic exercises such as weight training, functional training or sprinting increase short-term muscle strength.

Exercise benefits
  • Physical exercise is important for maintaining physical fitness and can contribute positively to maintaining a healthy weight, building and maintaining healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and strengthening the immune system.
  • Frequent and regular aerobic exercise has been shown to help prevent or treat serious and life-threatening chronic conditions such as high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, insomnia, and depression. Strength training appears to have continuous energy-burning effects that persist for about 24 hours after the training, though they do not offer the same cardiovascular benefits as aerobic exercises do.
  • There is conflicting evidence as to whether vigorous exercise (more than 70% of VO2 Max) is more or less beneficial than moderate exercise (40 to 70% of VO2 Max). Some studies have shown that vigorous exercise executed by healthy individuals can effectively increase opioid peptides (aka endorphins, a naturally occurring opiate that in conjunction with other neurotransmitters is responsible for exercise induced euphoria and has been shown to be addictive), positively influence hormone production (i.e., increase testosterone and growth hormone), benefits that are not as fully realized with moderate exercise.
  • Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functioning via improvement of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning, and enhancement of synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. In addition, physical activity has been shown to be neuro protective in many neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. For instance, it reduces the risk of developing dementia. Furthermore, anecdotal evidence suggests that frequent exercise may reverse alcohol-induced brain damage.
  • Physical activity is thought to have other beneficial effects related to cognition as it increases levels of nerve growth factors, which support the survival and growth of a number of neuronal cells.
  • Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise also work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart by increasing cardiac volume (aerobic exercise), or myocardial thickness (strength training, see Organ hypertrophy).
  • Not everyone benefits equally from exercise. There is tremendous variation in individual response to training: where most people will see a moderate increase in endurance from aerobic exercise, some individuals will as much as double their oxygen uptake, while others will never get any benefit at all from the exercise. Similarly, only a minority of people will show significant muscle growth after prolonged weight training, while a larger fraction experience improvements in strength. This genetic variation in improvement from training is one of the key physiological differences between elite athletes and the larger population. Studies have shown that exercising in middle age leads to better physical ability later in life.

Common misconceptions
Many myths have arisen surrounding exercise, some of which have a basis in reality, and some which are completely false. Myths include:
  • That excessive exercise can cause immediate death. Death by exercise has some small basis in fact. Water intoxication can result from prolific sweating (producing electrolyte losses) combined with consumption of large amounts of plain water and insufficient replenishment of electrolytes, especially salt and potassium (e.g. when running a marathon). It is also possible to die from a heart attack or similar affliction if overly intense exercise is performed by someone who is not at an appropriate level of fitness for that particular activity. A doctor should always be consulted before any radical changes are made to a person's current exercise regimen. Rhabdomyolysis is also a risk. Other common dangers may occur from extreme overheating or aggravation of a physical defect, such as a thrombosis or aneurysm.
  • That weightlifting makes you short or stops growth. One caveat is that heavy weight training in adolescents can damage the epiphyseal plate of long bones.
Targeted fat reduction
Spot reduction is a myth that exercise and training a particular body part will preferentially shed the fat on that part; for example, that doing sit-ups is the most direct way to reduce subcutaneous belly fat. This is false: one cannot reduce fat from one area of the body to the exclusion of others. Most of the energy derived from fat gets to the muscle through the bloodstream and reduces stored fat in the entire body, from the last place where fat was deposited. Sit-ups may improve the size and shape of abdominal muscles but will not specifically target belly fat for loss. Such exercise might help reduce overall body fat and shrink the size of fat cells. There is a very slight increase in the fat burnt at the area being exercised (e.g. abs) compared with the rest of the body, due to the extra blood flow at this area.

Muscle and fat tissue
Some people incorrectly believe that muscle tissue will turn into fat tissue once a person stops exercising. This is not literally true — fat tissue and muscle tissue are fundamentally different — but the common expression that "muscle will turn to fat" is truthful in the sense that catabolism of muscle fibres for energy can result in excess glucose being stored as fat. Moreover, the composition of a body part can change toward less muscle and more fat, so that a cross-section of the upper-arm for example, will have a greater area corresponding to fat and a smaller area corresponding to muscle. This is not muscle "turning into fat" however — it is simply a combination of muscle atrophy and increased fat storage in different tissues of the same body part. Another element of increased fatty deposits is that of diet, as most trainees will not significantly reduce their diet in order to compensate for the lack of exercise/activity.

Excessive exercise
  • Exercise is a stressor and the stresses of exercise have a catabolic effect on the body - contractile proteins within muscles are consumed for energy, carbohydrates and fats are similarly consumed and connective tissues are stressed and can form micro-tears. However, given adequate nutrition and sufficient rest to avoid overtraining, the body's reaction to this stimulus is to adapt and replete tissues at a higher level than that existing before exercising. The results are all the training effects of regular exercise: increased muscular strength, endurance, bone density, and connective tissue toughness.
  • Too much exercise can be harmful. The body parts exercised need at least a day of rest, which is why some health experts say one should exercise every other day or 3 times a week. Without proper rest, the chance of stroke or other circulation problems increases, and muscle tissue may develop slowly. It has also been noted by the medical field that expectant mothers should never exercise two days consecutively.
  • Inappropriate exercise can do more harm than good, with the definition of "inappropriate" varying according to the individual. For many activities, especially running, there are significant injuries that occur with poorly regimented exercise schedules. In extreme instances, over-exercising induces serious performance loss. Unaccustomed overexertion of muscles leads to rhabdomyolysis (damage to muscle) most often seen in new army recruits. Another danger is overtraining in which the intensity or volume of training exceeds the body's capacity to recover between bouts.
  • Stopping excessive exercise suddenly can also create a change in mood. Feelings of depression and agitation can occur when withdrawal from the natural endorphins produced by exercise occurs. Exercise should be controlled by each body's inherent limitations. While one set of joints and muscles may have the tolerance to withstand multiple marathons, another body may be damaged by 20 minutes of light jogging. This must be determined by each individual.
  • Too much exercise can also cause a female to miss her period, a symptom known as amenorrhea.


Nutrition and recovery
  • Proper nutrition is at least as important to health as exercise. When exercising, it becomes even more important to have a good diet to ensure that the body has the correct ratio of macronutrients whilst providing ample micronutrients, in order to aid the body with the recovery process following strenuous exercise.
  • Proper rest and recovery are also as important to health as exercise; otherwise the body exists in a permanently injured state and will not improve or adapt adequately to the exercise. Hence, it is important to remember to allow adequate recovery between exercise sessions.
  • The above two factors can be compromised by psychological compulsions (eating disorders such as exercise bulimia, anorexia, and other bulimias), misinformation, a lack of organization, or a lack of motivation. These all lead to a decreased state of health.
  • Delayed onset muscle soreness can occur after any kind of exercise, particularly if the body is in an unconditioned state relative to that exercise.

Exercise and brain function
In the long term, exercise is beneficial to the brain by:
  • Increasing the blood and oxygen flow to the brain
  • Increasing growth factors that help create new nerve cells and promote synaptic plasticity
  • Increasing chemicals in the brain that help cognition, such as dopamine, glutamate, norepinephrine, and serotonin

Categories of physical exercise
  • Aerobic exercise
  • Anaerobic exercise
  • Strength training
  • Agility training








==--==

Contact for Appointment

Name

Email *

Message *

Clinic & Camp Clinics

Vivekanantha Homoeo Clinic & Psychological Counselling Center

Dr.Senthil Kumar’s Consultation Schedule

Chennai

Head Office

Wednesday to Saturday:- 10.00am to 1.00pm &

5.00pm to 8.30pm

Sunday: - 10.30am to 1.00pm

(Consultation by Appointment only)

For Appointment

Please call: 09443054168,

Paramount Park

(Dr Plaza) - B Block,

B-12, Second Floor,

Velachery Main Road,

Direct Opposite to Saravana Stores,

Mega mart upstairs,

Near Vijaya nagar Bus Stand,

Velachery, Chennai 42,

Panruti

Branch Office

Monday(First & Third Monday of Every Month)

10.00am to 12.45pm &

05.30pm to 8.30pm

(Consultation by Appointment only)

For Appointment

Please call: 09443054168,

126, Chennai Salai,

(Near Raliway Gate, Direct Opposite to Lakshmi Villas Bank ATM), Panruti-607106,

Cuddalore District,

Tamil Nadu, India For

Pondicherry

Branch Office

Every Saturday:

11.00am to 02.00pm

(Consultation by Appointment only)

Appointment

Please call: 09443054168,

NB:-

Ø We are taking only minimum number of patients per day.

Ø We are allotting 40 to 5o minutes for new patients & 15 to 20 minutes for follow-ups.

Ø So be there at time to avoid unwanted waiting

Ø we concentrate more to patient’s privacy, so we are allotting 40 to 50 minutes/client – “so be there at time”

Ø We treat Many Diseases, so no one can know for what problem you are taking the treatment – So feel free to talk with Doctor and visit the Clinic.

For Appointment

Please call: 09443054168, 09786901830

Please call the Doctor and explain your problems in short, then SMS your Name – Mobile Number - Problem in Single word - date and day - Place of appointment (Eg: Rajini - 99xxxxxxx0 – Psoriasis – 21st Oct Sunday - Chennai )

You will receive Appointment details through SMS

For Foreign patients

For more detail and mode of payment

Send mail to consult.ur.dr@gmail.com

Or

Call +91 9443054168, +91 9786901830

http://homeoall.com/

Professional secrecy will be maintained

(Your complaints and other Details should be kept very confidential)

Join with me in Facebook

Disclaimer:

Disclaimer: These articles is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions. we used all reasonable care in compiling the information but make no warranty as to its accuracy. Consult a doctor or other health care professional for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions.